Type: VASCULAR PLANTS (PLANTAE VASCULARES)
Department: POKRYTOSEMENNYE (FLORAL) (ANGIOSPERMAE (MAGNOLIOPHYTA))
Class: MONOCOTYLEDONOUS (LILIOPSIDY) (MONOCOTYLEDONES (LILIOPSIDA))
Order: YaTRYShNIKOTsVETNYE (ORCHIDALES)
Family: YaTRYShNIKOVYE (ORHIDNYE) (ORCHIDACEAE)
Look: GYMNADENIA CONOPSEA (L.) R. BR.
Category of protection: 3
in the Red List of the 2nd edition (1993). It is protected in Ukraine, the Smolensk Region of Russia, Lithuania, Latvia. It is included in the Appendix II to the Convention SITES.
Perennial grassy plant with 4-6 palchatolopastny, squeezed from sides tubers and the olistvenny stalk up to 65 cm high at the basis covered with brownish sheet vaginas. The leaves (4-7) linearly-lantsetnye pointed, lengthways put, which on a top are pulled together in "bashlychok". Flowers small, lilac-pink, with a carnation smell, are collected in a dense kolosovidny inflorescence. The lip is rhombic, 3-bladed, with almost ovoid stupid blades (average is a little longer than the dispersing lateral) and long crescently curved shporets who is 1,5-2 times longer than an ovary. The ovary is sedentary, twisted. A fruit - the dry extended box. Seeds are small, numerous.
Eurasia: Europe, Caucasus, Siberia, Far East. In Belarus is in special localities and island sites of growth within the main part of an area. Places of growth in Kamenetsky, Drogichinsky and Pruzhansky districts of the Brestyosky Region, in the Grodno, Mostovsky and Ostrovetsky districts of the Grodno Region, in Beshenkovichsky, Braslavsky, Verkhnedvinsky, Vitebsk, Gluboksky, Gorodoksky, Lepelsky, Postavsky, Rossonsky, Ushachsky and Sharkovshchinsky districts of the Vitebsk Region, in Borisovsky, Volozhinsky, Dzerzhinsk, Logoysky, Minsk, Myadelsky, Pukhovichsky and Smolevichsky districts of the Minsk Region, in Belynichsky, Babruysk, Dribinsky, Osipovichsky, Slavgorod and Cherikovsky districts of the Mogilev Region, in Elsky district of the Gomel Region are known. Earlier Holopenichey was marked out in vicinities of Borisov, Grodno, Minsk, Nesvizha, Orsha also, and also it was specified for the Slonimsky County.
Sedge sfagnovye bogs, crude meadows, edges and forest glades of the mixed woods, among bushes. Is more plentiful on limy moderately damp soils. Prefers well lit sites.
Blossoms in June - July, fructifies in July - August. Treats highly specialized entomofila: his pollinators - day and night insects - butterflies, flies, bees. Reproduction is seed. Anemokhor. Germination of seeds underground; for the 3rd year there is the first green leaf, the plant for 6-7 year blossoms. During all life, and especially at young age, the kokushnik is connected with a mycorrhizal mushroom.
Number and tendency of its change:
Number is small. In the known locations meets single individuals or small groups.
Major factors of threat:
Anthropogenous - cabins of the wood of the main use with the subsequent economic transformation of lands, drying and meliorative works, excessive pasturage of cattle, recreational loadings (trampling, collecting and excavation of plants).
"Narochansky" and "Bialowieza Forest", the Berezinsky biospheric reserve, in wildlife areas of "Glebkovk" (The Minsk district), "Zvanets" (Drogichinsky district), "Wild" (Pruzhansky district), "Chechersky" (Chechersky district), "Osveysky" (Verkhnedvinsky district), "Red Bor" (Rossonsky and Verkhnedvinsky districts), "Mikhalinsko-Berezovsky" (Pruzhansky district), "Pekalinsky" (Smolevichsky district) and "Gozhevsky" (The Grodno district) is protected in national parks. It is necessary to exercise periodic control of a condition of the known populations, purposeful search of new places of growth and, if necessary, to organize their protection with prohibition of negative anthropogenous impacts. It is necessary to study an opportunity and features of cultivation of a kokushnik in culture.
Originators: Shvets I.V.