Type: VASCULAR PLANTS (PLANTAE VASCULARES)
Department: GOLOSEMENNYE (GYMNOSPERMAE (PINOPHYTA))
Class: CONIFEROUS (PINOPSIDA (CONIFERAE))
Order: PINES (PINALES)
Family: PINE (PINACEAE)
Look: ABIES ALBA MILL.
Category of protection: 1
It is included in the Red List of Belarus of the 1st and 2nd editions (1981, 1993).
Large evergreen monoecious tree up to 33 m high and with a diameter of trunk up to 80 cm of Krone almost cylindrical, with mutovchaty branches. Bark whitish-gray, smooth. The needles 2-3 cm long, linear, flat, grebenchato are located in 2 rows, brilliant, dark green, from above with fillets, from below slightly kilevaty, with 2 light strips; needles of reproductive escapes almost 4-faced. Mikrostrobila and female cones – in the top part of krone; cones are upright, 10-16 cm long, when maturing are scattered on separate brown scales. Integumentary scales are longer seed, unbent down, on the end with a deflexed edge. Kidneys are oval, are not covered with pitch. Seeds are large, with a wide light wing.
Boreal relic look which area covers the Atlantic and Central Europe, the Carpathians, the Mediterranean. The only isolated location is in Belarus far behind northeast border of an area and is located in Bialowieza Forest in the natural boundary of "Tisovik" (The Brest Region, Pruzhansky district).
Fir-tree grabovaya oak grove. The soil is cespitose and podsolic, it is temporarily superfluous humidified, sandy, on the friable water and glacial sandy loam spread by a sand-loamy moraine.
Cones ripen at the end of August - the beginning of September. Reproduction is seed.
Number and tendency of its change:
Now fir planting in Bialowieza Forest consists of 19 adult fructifying trees. Subgrowth is presented by 1-year shoots and seedlings of 2-5-year age.
Major factors of threat:
Drying melioration and economic transformation of lands, excessive zoogene loadings (subgrowth is almost completely destroyed by wild hoofed animals – pogryza and trampling).
It is cultivated in the Central botanical garden NAN of Belarus. It is grown up in Stolinsky forestry (The Brest Region), the Rossky forest area (The Grodno Region), some parks and nursery forests ("Shchemyslitsa", etc.). In the territory of National park "Bialowieza Forest" the site protection is carried out, are carried out the selective cabin for the purpose of increase in degree of illumination of a site and full inventory of shoots and subgrowth, and also seeding of seeds in nursery. Periodic optimization of the mode of moistening and lighting in this location, artificial cultivation in nurseries and moving to other places of Bialowieza Forest, broader introduction of a look to culture are necessary a constant control of a condition of population in the natural boundary of "Tisovik".
Originators: Parfyonov V. I., Mlynarchik M.P.