Silver carp ordinary (hypophthalmichthys molitrix)
Treats fishes of family of Karpov (Cyprinidae). In Belarus, as well as in Europe, in Russia, in Ukraine and in Central Asia, carries the name white, or ordinary, a silver carp.
Natural area of distribution — the river of flat type of the basin of Amur, from Blagoveshchensk to lower reaches, the river Songhua, Ussuri, Zeya, Argun, the lake Khanka and continental reservoirs of China, on the South to Guangzhou (Canton).
For the first time to Belarus it is delivered in selection and captured the site of Institute of fishery of "Izobelino" for acclimatization and a ryborazveyodeniye, is grown up in pond farms of the Republic now. It is very exacting to amount of the oxygen dissolved in water therefore avoids the polluted reservoirs.
Terms of approach of puberty of a white silver carp are closely connected with temperature and fodder conditions of habitat. In the south of an area the polovozrelost comes in 3-4 years, in Amur (northern border of an area) - in 8-9 years with a length of body about 50 cm. In reservoirs coolers of state district power station ripen for 3-4 years earlier, than in the Amur River.
Reproduction of silver carps in the conditions of Belarus is possible only by a factory method by an artificial incubation of caviar and the subsequent podrashchivaniye thresh on special fish factories with artificial heating of water. Caviar and milts from them are received by means of hypophysial injections, incubate in special devices.
Valuable food and fast-growing fish. In the Yangtze River (China) lives up to 20-year age, reach 1 m of length and 16 kg of weight, occasionally 1,3 m of length and 30 kg of weight. In the conditions of Belarus, at cultivation in ponds, fingerlings reach the mass of 15-20 g, the two-year-old - 250-300 g, the three-year-old - about 1200, 4-5-letki - to 3-7 kg. In cold years of a prirosta decrease.
The white silver carp is easily crossed to motley. Hybrids, in comparison with initial types, possess more increased resilience, growth rate, big plasticity concerning food, a little bigger efficiency. Therefore in the conditions of Belarus are the most perspective objects of polyculture in pond and lake fish breeding.
It is recommended for cultivation as additional object of polyculture of pond fishes in the conditions of warm-water farms.
As foodstuff the silver carp is of a great interest. Meat its tasty, gentle, can be very valuable object of dietary food. Contains from 4,5 to 23,5% of fat, average quantity - 8,3-13,1%. Fat content increases in process of increase in the sizes of fish.