Perch (perca fluviatilis)
The Belarusian name - a perch; local - everywhere a perch or a perch. In Belarus it is widespread everywhere in the rivers, lakes, reservoirs, inundated reservoirs and in ponds. Everywhere is one of the most numerous fishes, on number conceding to small fry a little.
The general coloring of a body chartreuse, on sides of 5-9 cross dark strips giving to fish very motley look. The first back fin gray, the second chartreuse, other bright red, without spots. Coloring substantially changes depending on age and conditions of dwelling: in forest shady reservoirs perches always dark, in transparent water light, young people are painted odnotsvetny, at large variations in a coloring more considerable.
Is the typical lake and river fish leading day, mainly settled life, does not make large removements. Its habitats change depending on age and a season. In the summer small and average okunk choose different creeks, zatok, coastal zones at thickets and other zatishny places, in the fall and come to deeper places in the winter. Large perches adhere to deep sites, in a warm season keep small flocks which and are integrated in the fall in the winter.
Puberty of a female is reached on the 3-4th year of life, with a length of body about 10-12 cm, males, sometimes and in two years, at achievement of length of 9-10 cm of Ikrometaniye single, amicable, occurs soon after opening of reservoirs, at water temperature about 5-8 °C that in the conditions of Belarus happens at the end of March - the beginning of April and coincides, as a rule, with the largest level of flood waters. In lakes spawning is later that is connected with later opening by their and slower warming up of water.
Despite a large number of the food devoured by a perch, his growth rate it is small, even under the best conditions reaches 16-20 cm of length and 100 g of weight only to four-year age, polukilogramovy individuals usually have age more than 7-8 years. The maximum sizes, to 50-60 cm of length and to 2,75 kg of weight. About 15-20 cm weighing 100-150 g are usual in ulova of an individual.
To grind a perch at the beginning eats zooplankton, but at achievement of the sizes about 4 cm in many reservoirs passes to food with a benthos and whitebaits of fishes. Adults eat larvae of insects, Crustacea, but mainly small fish: small fry, a verkhovka, the loach, eats small okunk and other fishes.
On the gluttony and the harm done to other fishes, the perch surpasses a pike especially as its number in reservoirs is many times more. Numerous populations of a perch are very strong contenders in food with valuable fishes. Therefore in all vodoyoema of cultural fish breeding the perch is undesirable and is subject to destruction.
Thanks to the big number and a wide circulation, the perch has essential value in fisheries sector. Besides, during the whole year is the main object of amateur fishery.