Since the end of the 16th century as "Grushov" it is known — the settlement on eastern frontier of the Kobrin principality. One of possession of princes Kobrin, a sort of the coat of arms the Pursuit of which originates from the grand duke of VKL Olgerd. According to the diploma of 1404 of the grand duke Vitovt becomes possession of the prince Roman Fedorovich. In 1495 the letter of the prince Alexander confirmed the right for possession to the princess Anna Fedorova which to it Semenovaya Romanovich's mother wrote down "... on svosm zhivot with vsim, z people and s a tribute, with vent" s tym that a zdavna... k Pear to prislukhayet". In 1509 the princess Ulyana Semenova wrote down a manor together with Cherevachichami Yury Patsevich (Patsu) and his wife. According to "a vyrok of 1522", Grushovaya and Cherevachichi which illegally departed Ventslavu Kostevichu. become Andrey Aleksandrovich's property, princes Vasily and Andrey Sangushko "with vsim with tym, kak sya ty imenya a zdavna in a soba mayut". Then, according to the copy from books of public affairs of Lithuania for 1528, Grushovaya was recognized by the royal letter of Sigismund the queen Bona belonging "to the hereditary lock Kobrin", and taken away" from Sangushko.
In 1677 Grushevo's yard in Gorodetsky a key of Kobrin economy was bought by Samuil Lukovskoy married to Barbara from Siodlov. After the section of the Speech of Pospoli-toy Grushevo endured destiny of many local manors. It was presented by Catherine II to A.V. Suvorov. In 1812 it was bought by Anthony Rodzevich, horunzhy kobrinskiya. Rod Rodzevichey is known from 15th century, came from Oshmyanshina. On Pinshina in 1613 Severin moved. The beginning of a branch in this region, on family tree materials, was put by Yury who used privileyam of the king John III and in 1708 bought from Mikhail Sventsitsky a manor Zamosc. The line which went from Karl, the son Yury became especially branched.
From Anthony, according to Stock for 1845, Grushevo departed to the eldest son Theodor (Fedor). Penyugi (Peyuodzi), Morochno, Kiyakovichi, Senchitsa, Dubchitsa became property of the second son Heinrich. Heinrich became related with influential childbirth. He was married to Amelia Kuzhenetskaya, Józef and Aemilia's daughter from Ordov. One of sisters became a countess Krasitskoy, Anna married Charnetsky; Falition — for Rishard (1779-1862), the younger son M. Butrimovich.
Heinrich's manors were confiscated and, according to case of audit of the reporting under management of the confiscated and sequestered manors of 1863, are leased under the contract. In 1867 Penyugi for 28784 rubles was bought by V. Davydov. Davydova owned a manor till 1914. Then it was raspartsellirovano, but the farmstead house, fragments of the estate remained. Owners of manors, Heinrich and Amelia Rodzevichi, for participation in revolt of 1863-1864 were sentenced to the Siberian penal servitude. According to the local, the former farm laborer, Amelia killed the Cossack from the group pursuing R. Traugutt. Due to the pregnancy she received a monthly delay on sending to Siberia. The sentence was executed after the birth on January 30, 1864 in Penyugakh of the daughter in time — future writer who was named Maria. The monthly child together with the senior children was transported to the house of the grandfather on mother in Zamoshye's manor near Ivanov (the estate is lost). However Kuzhenetskiye soon die, and children are taken away by the aunt Carolina Skirmunt (1824-1916), the most oldest daughter Aleksandra Skirmunta and Constantius Sulistrovskoy from Molodov. Carolina was married to the cousin Boleslav Skirmunt (1817-1857) of Velyatichey, marshalky the Pinsky County, and owned Kozhenevo's manor in Pinshchina. (In 2278 tithes) remind only single trees along the road of the former big manor and garden fragments now.
In 1871 Rodzevichi returned from exile in Tobolsk, but it was not necessary to live in native manors. They moved to Warsaw. Maria studies in board of Sisters Nepokalyanok in Yadlovtsa. In 1875 Theodor who had no successors dies, and Grushevo passes to Heinrich Rodzevich. Its land possession with Studenk and Belolesye's forest dachas made 1741 tithes. With the father Maria moves to a manor after long years of wandering on others yards, without remembering herself for the first real pleasure in life: "... Ours! The ogorodnina, the sadovina, the eaves over the head, reliable and silent, and milk smells of herbs, warm after a yield of milk... all the! Daily, forever".
Maria Rodzevich (1864 — 1944) was the last owner of a manor which passed with her in 1881. Its land grounds made 1533 hectares. She diligently conducted economy, wrote books, restored the estate after full plunder in war of 1914. At the age of 75 years in September, 1939 together with the girlfriend Yadvigoy Skirmunt it was necessary to leave well-loved by Grushevo and to reach not without effort Warsaw, to Konstantin Skirmunt, to test difficult years of war. Her last words: "... so there was a wish to wait". Died on November 6, 1944 and it is buried on the Avenue of honored people of Poland in Povonzkakh (Warsaw) though wished to be based in Grushevskaya to the earth near parents and the sister upon a local cemetery. Amelia's burials (died in 1893), Heinrich (died in 1892) and the sister Tselina are improved in recent years by Bronislava Artishevskaya from Warsaw.
The estate in 1825 was put by Anthony Rodzevich on the flat slightly lowered district. With special spiritual contents it was filled by Maria. According to the inventory description of 1845, the estate occupied 25 tithes, the yard included sound stone constructions: two-storeyed manour house, the house-keeper — one-storeyed, two two-storeyed barns, a glacier, a wing, etc. The sheep-fold was pise-walled.
The ceremonial part of the estate had symmetric and axial creation (scheme). The farmstead house stood on an axis of the entrance avenue. Before it the orchestra seats and Bramah settled down. Its photo is provided by M. Marshak. The facade of the building had a massive four-columned Tuscan portico with a triangular pediment. Symmetrically it at walls of a ceremonial facade of the building from two parties trees in the form of the lateral scenes grew. A decor of smoothly plastered white walls sandrik and round sockets over windows of the first floor made the pro-thinned-out eaves with croutons. The table walled in a wall said: "My God, bless inhabitants. This house is built in anniversary 1825 by Antoniyem and Eleonora from Gelgudov Rodzevichami. The first floor of the building adapted for modern needs remained.
The situation in the house was rather simple. There were tiled furnaces and fireplaces, furniture generally from an oak of local execution, family portraits, meeting of the Polish and foreign porcelain, library, archive. The drawing room called "Swedish" with the furniture made in Grushev according to the drawings brought by Maria from Scandinavia was distinguished from rooms. The original bed case had no doors, in it conducted steps. More expensive ancient furniture arranged salon in which family portraits hung.
Maria loved wise sayings, itself composed precepts. In the hall the text of ten precepts composed by Maria for guests in a visible place hung. They were filled with the simple vital wisdom directed to education of the best human qualities. Maria urged to esteem and observe silence and rest in the house; ignored disorders, turmoil, increase of a voice, except singing and laughter; reminded of need of continuous work on a measure of forces, abilities and hobbies, was against devilish honoring of money; asked not to profane thoughts the speech about bad, empty, angry, to care for God's creations — animals and to patiently transfer such different punishments dominical as hunger, trouble, an illness.
In the yard were on the left side lyamus with ten columns along a facade, from right — a siikhler, the big two-storeyed building with small windows, a roof from zalobka and four tetrahedral columns on a lateral facade. And though buildings had economic appointment, existence of columns, a roof structure community, the uniform height, character of their arrangement favored to perception of the yard as uniform ensemble.
The park behind the house was considered rather as a garden in which old trees grew, the reservoir, an apiary, a greenhouse in an environment of a rosary and a garden of flower plants settled down. Many components had symbolical value. A beehive of an apiary bore names of the Polish kings and queens; in depth the "hatka of forest people" postponed from the wood settled down. The sculpture from a tree of the apostle Pyotr stood on the island of a reservoir. The 500-year oak of "Dewajtis" which became the hero of the same name, one of the first stories of the writer written in 1889 and who brought it popularity was pride, the most favourite tree of park.
The tree transferred all adversities, having reached height of 25-26 m, diameter of 175 cm. Also former arbor remained. It has a rectangular shape (5-4 m) and about two old oaks, approximately, of age-mates of an oak "Devaytis" was created by replanting of a maple and ash-tree (6 trees grow). The territory will bear traces, fragments of the former superficial channels, podsypny paths with a linear obsadka which were created in connection with remoisture content of the district. Water came to a reservoir with the island of rounded shape on the bank of which the old willow zolotistopobegovy grows. Trees single or in the form of small groups, massifs grow in park. Protective landing (along the highway) on the expressed shaft with two ditches is well expressed. Unusually arranged estate drew attention of tourists who were kindly accepted by the writer, always treating with a loaf of bread and fresh milk from a big jug.
Became Grushevo for Maria an earthly paradise. And not only itself Grushevo, and Polesia, this surprising "edge of dense forests and bogs" which filled soul with daily pleasures and cares absorbed so what at one time she lived in the log hut which is specially constructed in 1911 among the wood as a local poleshuchka together with Yadvigoy Skirmunt (1874 — 1950?) Heinrich and Maria's daughter from Tvardovsky who will write the memories of Maria Rodzevich later. In communication with the nature the talent of future writer was born. Her life to Polesia is a rare example of service to this edge. Even Maria refused to go to difficult years of World War I when peasants, becoming refugees, left deep into Russia, flatly. Refused and not only because in eyes there was a difficult way of the father and mother, chained in shackles, and could not leave rather that loved above all. She remained faithful to the earth which brought happiness, gave deep terrestrial roots, accepted on eternal rest of her ancestors. Did not leave later Polesia when got a small manor in Poland. Motto of life of already famous writer: "There are two forces which should give everything, without demanding for it anything - it is Fatherland and God".
Carolina Skirmunt who told children not only fairy tales and legends, but also edge history, history INCL. was the first spiritual teacher of Maria. Acquainted with his heroes. In the small room of the small house, wooden with a simple porch, Skirmuntov in Kozhenev near an icon of the Mother of God stood a portrait of Romuald Traugutt near which the candle burned. Impressionable Maria not just listened with delight, and since childhood realized the price of this history, fight for freedom, constantly thinking of the most expensive to it the people banished to far Siberia. Later, when parents returned to a manor, she listened from the father who was a part of group of Roman Roginsky, about heroism of insurgents, their torments and deprivations in exile in Siberia.
Impressions, and together with them deep respect for makers of history were not jammed by time. On the eve of the 70th anniversary of revolt of 1863 — 1864 Maria Rodzevich will become the active initiator of establishment of a monument in the next Gorodtsa. The oak cross on a concrete pedestal was solemnly placed in 1933 into a central square of the town (it is demolished in 1939).
The local poleshuk-forester Vasily Fedchenko who took away it in the backwoods forest to lodges of beavers, settlements of otters, black storks entered Maria into the world of the Polesia nature, its sacraments and beauty, acquainted with the world of birds, herbs, mushrooms. Maria was a capable schoolgirl. She well knew and loved the crane in which she lived, was a defender and the trustee of all live. Highly appreciated manual skills of peasants, collected different objects of a household purpose. Was fond of festive women's national suits and itself sometimes put on them.
In the stories and novels ("The terrible old man", 1887: "Девайтнс", 1888; "Grivda", 1891; "From a solitude", 1895; "On hills", 1896; "Heather", 1903: "Belozor nest", 1931; "Summer of forest people", * Valuable stone", "Fires and ashes", "Black bread", etc.) Maria addressed the Belarusian subject, sang of work of simple people-poleshukov, beauty of the Polesia nature. In Grushev its public and religious work proceeded. Maria took active part in return of a church to Catholics in Gorodtsa, fundovat repair of the temple. In 1939 with se participation are under construction a church in Antonole to which the management of an award of Jesuits sent relics of the former Polesia missionary Andrey Baboli known in the 17th century of the preacher of Catholicism which is brutally tortured by Cossacks after canonized and canonized. Its sacrificial image since childhood deeply sank down in her soul.
The estate in Grushev remained almost in former borders, but more than others lost lines of that special farmstead Polesia environment created by Maria Rodzevich. Peasants treated it with deep respect, descendants do not forget. In day of the 50 anniversary peasants presented an album with dedication of "The fair lady Maria for 50 years of joint work". They bought bells and free of charge brought a brick to the church which is under construction in Antopole (now the building of the temple is used by a fire brigade). Maria had high government awards — the awards "Restituta Militari" of the fourth and third degree.
On A. T. Fedoruk's materials. Ancient estates of Beresteyshchina
Grushevo. Farmstead house. On old photos it is two-storeyed
Grushevo. The avenue in park
Grushevo. Economic construction of a manor Radevichey
Grushevo. Economic construction of a manor Radevichey
Oak Devaytis and the remains of the farmstead house of Maria Rodzevich in Grushov
The scheme of park in Grushevo
Grushevo. Farmstead house. Photo of 1939.
Grushevo. Spikhler. A photo till 1939.
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