BELOSPINNY WOODPECKER OF DENDROCOPOS LEUCOTOS BECHSTEIN, 1803 BELASPINY DZYATSEL
Short description. The sizes and on coloring it is similar to a big motley woodpecker. Length of a body is 24 — 30 cm, wingspan of 40 — 48 cm, mass of 105 — 112 g. Plumage of a back of black color, nadkhvostya white. Wings black with white cross strips. A body bottom white with dark hyphens and red underbelly. At a male bright red "hat", at a female head top black. At young people red color is almost absent.
Distribution. The area of distribution of nominative subspecies covers the central, east and partially northern and Southern Europe, and also considerable forest and mountainous areas of Asia to Korea, Sakhalin and northern China. In Belarus it is widespread extremely sporadically in all territory. The greatest occurrence is characteristic of the southern regions of the republic.
Habitats. Prefers the crude mixed and deciduous woods. Favourite habitats are old, quite often boggy alder woods, the southern pine and oak woods, and also inundated oak groves. Meets also in the rarefied sites of boggy birch forests impurity of various breeds, and among groups of deciduous trees in floodplains of the rivers. Seldom lodges in sosnovo and fir-tree and deciduous plantings. Everywhere is drawn towards places where there are a lot of fallen trunks, mouldering trees and stubs.
Biology. Settled look. It Shezditsya by separate couples. Hollows out hollows independently in rotten, quite often very mouldering trees (birches, aspens, olkha), over 10 m are quite frequent in stubs at the height of 1 — 5 m, in rare instances. Opening letka roundish. In a laying of 4 — 6 purely white eggs with an average size of 27,9 x 20,3 mm. Otkladka of eggs begins since the end of April. Nasizhivaniye lasts 14 — 16 days. Baby birds take off from grew dull at the age of 15 — 16 days. In a year one brood. It is fed with mainly various insects — inhabitants of mouldering (dead) wood.
Number and tendencies of its change. Total number in general is low and can be estimated at 5000 — 6000 couples which are aggregated in optimum habitats. Population density in them, for example, in Bialowieza Forest alder thickets, can reach 1 — 2 couples on 10 hectares .
Major factors of threat. Violation of quality of habitats of a look as a result of drying melioration, reduction of the areas of high-age alder thickets, oak groves as a result of cabins, destruction of wood plantings in floodplains of the rivers, maintaining sanitary cabins and cabins of leaving, clearing of the cluttered-up forest stands.
Protection measures. Termination of meliorative development of the floodplains and territories adjacent to the boggy woods. Restriction of cabins high-age, first of all the boggy, deciduous woods, a total ban on cabins of high-age oak groves. Preservation of windfall sites, the old fautny (damaged) trees at silvicultural use.
1. Dmitrenok M. G. — the personal message.
Originators: Yaminsky B. V., Zhuravlev D. V.