Articles about Kobrin: 1945 - Dozhinki

Kobrin district in 1944-1949

The Great Patriotic War became our history as battle of the people, unknown on bitterness, tragic element and heroism, against Hitlerite fascism. The way to a victory was long and difficult. And the truth about the most difficult social and political situation and the experienced unprecedented difficulties of post-war years remains only in memory of those who endured all this, and such people every year less and less … According to the Riga peace treaty of 1921 Kobrin district appeared as a part of 2 Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth till 1939. Kobrin was the center of a povet (county) which was a part of the Polesia voivodeship. All western Belarus was an agrarian appendage of Poland, a source of raw materials and a sales market of production.

On September 1, 1939 World War II began. On September 22, 1939 from the Moscow highway Kobrin included the Soviet tanks. The people's assembly of the Western Belarus in Bialystok at which there was a deputy delegation of Kobrin on October 28-30, 1939 voted for establishment of the Soviet power. Here it was accepted to include the appeal to the Supreme Council of the USSR with a request the Western Belarus in structure of USSR and to reunite it with BSSR. The request was granted. So Kobrin district was a part of the USSR. In life of the city and area socialist transformations began. First of all restored the Dnepro-Bugsky channel. Before war in the area about forty industrial enterprises, including 11 mills, 2 milkchurns, 1 suknovalka, 2 brick-works were charged extra. Also other plants worked tanning, pottery, peat. By June, 1940 2 collective farms were created, and in their year there were 5. The wide network of medical institutions is created. Before war in Kobrin district there were 55 schools at which over 7 thousand pupils were engaged. The Recreation center, children's technical station were created. In Kobrin 17 various enterprises, power plant, 2 movie theaters, 2 schools, hospital, the 556th houses of municipal fund and 1384 houses of private fund worked. The well-planned city located in the center of four highways having railway station and the waterway of the message totaled about 16 thousand inhabitants before war.

War changed the economic image of the city and area. Germans burned and destroyed about 239 residential buildings, completely destroyed almost all enterprises, and took out the equipment to Germany. Irreparable injury was caused to the state. Only in Kobrin from 16 thousand population there were about 5 thousand population. To 10 thousand residents it was shot and stolen in the German slavery. The big loss was caused to agriculture. Villages, schools, at home, of hospital are burned and destroyed. 3750 horses, 8095 heads of cattle, 5022 pieces of pigs, 9749 sheep and 26086 heads of poultry are selected and stolen to Germany.

On July 20, 1944 the city was freed. The first tasks of the temporary civil and military authorities in the freed territories were: * organization of local administrative administrations: district executive committees, Village Councils, law enforcement agencies, procuring organizations and financial institutions; * start of power plants, municipal objects; * restoration of railway stations, bridges, station. This time guerrilla heads became pioneers of restoration of the Soviet power. On the city began to search for the remained Soviet employees with assistance of whom activity of vital establishments was resumed. In May, 1945 on the Dnepro-Bugsky channel vessels went. Restored it not only the arrived experts, but also thousands of residents and villages. On June 21, 1945 on restoration of the channel the big group of workers and employees, technical officers received awards for early performance of the state task. For May 27, 1945. the power plant of low power, mill, canning, soap-producing and other plants was restored. Began the work sherstochesalny, knitted, shoe, cooper's, wheel oboznaya workshops. Restoration of sawing, oil milling and brick plants began. Until the end of 1945 it was necessary to restore joiner's workshops, rope production, plywood factory, plant of soft drinks and many other things as the population of the area was in great need in various industrial goods. Peasants felt need in wheels, carts, saddleries. These years and some more years later shortage of footwear was felt.

Repair shops which were placed at the end of Sovetskaya St. began to work with one of the first in the city. In September, 1944 the machine and tractor workshop restored work, in 1945 it was reorganized into an interdistrict workshop of capital repairs, and in four years became Kobrin repair plant. There was a war. The army needed not only the food therefore government bodies of the power conducted broad mobilization material, food and in cash, certainly, at the expense of residents and sat down. The local industry and producers' cooperation carried out orders of the front. For example, workers of artel "Socialist labor" sewed padded jackets and wadded trousers for the front. And pages of newspapers dazzled with notes under a heading: "All for the front!" Kobrin railroad workers participated in competition among railroad workers of the Art. Kobrin and the Art. Gorodets on the best help to the front. They cared for that there was no idle time of cars that there were no delays of trains at station, freights went on the front. K.S. Terpilovskaya remembers (1931): "After release worked at the railroad, changed cross ties. The day norm for men made 25 m, for teenagers of 12 m. It was very difficult to cope. Sometimes adults, from those who worked with a row helped". In the city was many people destitute by war – the widows, orphans, disabled people, fire victims who were left without housing, families of the military personnel who died in the years of war. Kobrin's inhabitants remember that at the station, on streets there were many beggars, legless, mutilated.

Long time authorities had no opportunity to give them support, there were no means. There were small privileges to families of the military personnel. And generally support was carried out at the expense of residents and the area.

Also the fund of the help to families of veterans was created. Community work days were organized and the raised money went to fund of the help: cash of 17 780 rub; neigh – 150 kg; potatoes - 300 kg; torments - 40 kg; cabbage – 10 kg. The administration of the enterprises organized the help under repair of apartments. But in exceptional cases, on memoirs kobrinchan, it was possible to count on mutual aid of neighbors and just kind people.

In the territory of Kobrin district right after release activity of party and Soviet authorities, and also activity of the Komsomol organization of the area was restored. Under their management restoration of economic life began. Analyzing a social and political situation in Kobrin district, it is possible to draw conclusions that the situation was difficult. Residents had an ambiguous relation to the Soviet power. But the prevailing number of inhabitants did not support nationalist movement which took place after release and some time after war. Without having a reliable support at the population, it went out. The thought-up affairs of "enemies of the people" were cancelled, and most of convicts are found not guilty and rehabilitated to the middle of the 50th years. Rehabilitation was resumed later, but did not end. Most of the people believed party, Stalin, that they conducted the people to communism victory, to bright future. "Long live our Soviet Homeland and its leader companion Stalin!" - patriotic slogans sounded.

As for material and household problems of workers and employees in post-war years, them was enough. Workers of Mr. Kobrina and the area shared the savings with the state. It was presented as bright demonstration of patriotism of the Soviet people, as expression of consciousness and patriotism of the Soviet people who do not feel sorry for forces and means for the fastest restoration of economy, implementation of plans of the first post-war five-years period. So the problem of the help to the citizens who were injured from war, to families of veterans, orphan children laid down on shoulders of peasants, workers and employees. The state had no means to undertake it: all means went for the front. In conditions when people experienced extreme difficulties, this help can be defined as great humanity.

After war there were many orphans. By October 1, 1944 the orphanage is created in Kobrin. There lived more than 30 children from three-year-old to fourteen-year age. Children starved … From the report of the Kobrin district committee of LKSMB: "6 poods of wheat, more than 200 eggs are transferred to orphanage. The regional committee addressed school students of rural schools which collected and transferred to orphanage about 100 poods of bread". So in the conditions of completion of military operations along with restoration of a national economy by government bodies of the power broad mobilization of material, food and monetary resources for needs of the front was conducted. It is possible to call a labor feat that contribution which was made to the kobrinchena in fund of the Victory safely.

It should be noted that at all material shortcomings adjoining on poverty at very frequent cases of violation of legality from the authorities, the people who worried during war there is a lot of grief, not seeing and not knowing provided life before war, were happy at least with insignificant, but continuous growth of welfare of people, annual reduction of prices and cancellation of a rationing system. During hard post-war time at the most part of the population the belief in the future, hope, humanity and labor enthusiasm remained. And, in spite of the fact that all post-war life passed under control of party, and many methods and ideas of the management are now called into question or reconsidered, that huge role which she played heavy post-war time cannot deny.

Anton Kordyukov


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