What road you would not drive in Kobrin, it will surely bring on one of old streets. Once all of them agreed in the center, on the Market square, near the lock. And now these ancient streets the long and brisk. Of course, they in many respects changed the shape, more than once changed the names and nevertheless kept something from bygone times. And all in Kobrin 154 streets and the lane.
The city is known to many tourists. A comfortable position at the intersection of highway highways that conduct from such cities as Moscow, Warsaw, Minsk, Kiev, Pinsk, proximity of Brest and Bialowieza Forest attract fans of travel on the native land, foreign guests here. But the main thing — the interesting meeting with the history expects here. Therefore the multilingual speech of our neighbors and friends from Russia, Ukraine, Baltic, from the Caucasus and far Central Asia sounds on streets and squares of the city. Excursions of the foreign students who are trained in the USSR are frequent here. The Kobrin bureau of excursions and travel is always ready to offer various routes on the city and its vicinities. We can invite readers of this book to walk too and present them all sights of our city.
Our way begins with Komsomoltsev Square. This place on which many centuries there was a city of Kobrin back. Exactly there was Nizhny Novgorod the lock and the posad, and then the city magistrate was placed and the town hall towered. Last century the area was called Senna, and then Commandant's. In 1912 built the building of loan noble bank here — in the county there were more than 80 landowner manors which were constantly needing the credits. The structure sustained in classical style was allocated with the architectural forms, columns decorating a facade, made impression. Perhaps, therefore inhabitants and all area called Bank. Popular and quite hardy name of all area was "Lock" though the lock at that time did not exist any more. On the square various exhibitions were organized, holidays a dozhinok (completion of harvesting) were spent. When in 1920 in Kobrin the Soviet power was established, in the house No. 14 on the square there was a district Revolutionary-military committee. Now there is a music school, and the board attached here reminds of the former host and of that heroic time.
The lane by Belarus restaurant we come to Liberty Square. Once here one of sleeves of the small river of Kobrinki which was fencing off the lock from the market proceeded. The market was always the main trade place of the city. Malls where the set of benches (about 200) concentrated, burned more than once therefore subsequently they were made stone. They were P-shaped in the plan, with the big economic yard and the adjoining two-storeyed hotel for visitors of merchants. Northern, east and partially western facades of this stocky massive building remained. Now here the garment factory was placed. In 1961 its new three-storyed case which occupied almost all territory of the former market closed the southern part of rows.
At the corner of Liberty Square and Pervomayskaya Street the house facade on a high socle is visible - it is a drugstore No. 17. The building is built at the end of the 18th century, but in the 20th century was several times reconstructed, in particular the peak over the second floor was built that visually ennobled a structure. On a high ladder it is possible to rise from two parties by a porch and to enter a drugstore.
On the left side of the area the Sputnik shop was located — earlier this room was occupied by regional Recreation center. Nearby some more buildings in which before revolution there were various state establishments, world court, several benches. From the different parties to the square the small two-storeyed houses which densely nestled to each other come end faces. The majority of them are constructed at the end of the 18th century. Owners, building them, cared only for appeal of the facades sustained in baroque or classical forms. Of course, the buildings collapsing during wars considerably lost the original form. But they were always restored on the former bases therefore Liberty Square configuration outlined by the line of these houses remained from time immemorial.
The market square witnessed national performances and revolutionary events, the witness of heroic death of the best sons of Fatherland more than once. Therefore began to call it Liberty Square. On May 1, 1975 in honor of the fiftieth anniversary of the powerful demonstration which was taking place in Kobrin at a main entrance of garment factory established a memorial board.
On it — names of active participants of fight for national and social release of the workers of the Western Belarus who died in 1923 — 1939.
From South side Liberty Square is adjoined by the square of A. I. Morozov. Arisen after the Great Patriotic War, it was several times reconstructed. In 1985 in commemoration of the 40 anniversary of the Victory over fascist Germany the obelisk on which memorial plates names of the regiments which were freeing the city in 1944 and received the honourable name of "Kobrin" are cut was open here. In the depth of the square the Recreation center building is seen.
At the left and to the right of the square of Morozov there pass two streets: Suvorova and Pushkin. Pushkin Street is always populous and is noisy: there is a department store, here the heavy transport traffic. On Suvorov Street — silence and tranquility. Surrounded with broad-leaved lindens, narrow and direct, it brings directly to gate of the well-known park. But at first we will pay attention to the first angular two-storeyed building that at the left. In the house No. 1 in October — November, 1939 there lived A. T. Tvardovsky and B. L. Gorbatov. The memorial plate established in 1986 in honor of stay in Kobrin of outstanding representatives of the Soviet literature testifies to it.
The street appeared in a year of decline of the Magdebourg Kobrin when began to manage his affairs from "Province" — the estate on which place will grow then park. Therefore originally she was called Gubernianska, or Gubernialna, and at the beginning of the 20th century was renamed in Suvorov. On this street the great commander also lived. His house — it stands on the right side — it is impossible to pass, without having noticed. Here the museum, an entrance to which protect two ancient guns. After A. V. Suvorov's death his manor was sold out by successors. In the early sixties last century the house was got by the retired lieutenant colonel of the Russian engineering troops Romuald Traugutt who became the prominent participant of revolt of 1863 — 1864 subsequently. The street bore his name in 1921 — 1939.
During fascist occupation Hitlerites were going to make the Ukrainian nationalist school in Suvorov's house, but the invention failed. Then invaders turned the building into a stable. After their exile the Red Army men and guerrillas who just freed the city organized a community work day on cleaning of the house and territory of the collected dirt. It was the first post-war community work day in Kobrin. And on June 18, 1946 bedding set Central Committee Bureau adopted the resolution on restoration of the building and on creation of the museum in it. On May 1, 1948 opening of the Kobrin military and historical museum of A. V. Suvorov took place. Since then it was visited by 3 million people. In a museum exposition the rich collection of the ancient weapon and equipment of the Russian and overseas armies, utensils, furniture, books, coins of the past times is presented. In 1950 to the 150 anniversary from the date of A. V. Suvorov's death before the building the bronze bust of the commander was established.
Military and historical museum of A. V. Suvorov
On the way to the museum on the same side of the street the concrete two-storeyed building expressly of constructivist and modernist architecture draws attention. It was built in the 30th years of our century by request of the insurance company. Since 1985 in it the House of weddings was placed. Inside — perfectly issued interiors with the woodcarving and incrustation executed by pupils of local technical training college of art national crafts.
Opposite to the museum the five-floor building of House of Soviets, strict in a form, towers. From here the view of the Lenin Square with a monument to the founder of the first-ever socialist state opens. The monument was at Liberty Square earlier, and then in connection with construction of the production case of garment factory in 1961 is postponed for the new, just developed square. It is difficult for young kobrinchana to present now that about twenty five years ago this area did not exist that here, along turn of Pushkin Street, in the 50th years there were houses which grew into the earth, some with straw roofs, and on that place where the house with grocery store No. 21 on the first floor nowadays settled down, the small bus station, by the way, the first in the history of Kobrin was placed.
For House of Soviets, at the corner of Suvorov's streets and Republican, there is one more ancient two-storeyed building. It is constructed at the end of the 19th century, and barracks of the first battalion of the 149th Tamansky regiment were placed in it. In June, 1941 a half of the house was destroyed by a direct hit of a fascist bomb / the escaped part restored after war. Here a long time the Kobrin district executive committee was placed. Behind this building the Belarus hotel, and from here already no distance to park of A. V. Suvorov is visible. Near park the most silent part of the street — the movement is forbidden here. It is picturesquely framed with old lindens which weaved kroner almost close the sky.
The park as it was already told, was put on the place of a manor "Province" which since 1795 began to belong to A. V. Suvorov. In the middle of the 19th century the manor was bought by Alexander Mickiewicz, professor of the Kharkiv university, the brother of the famous Polish poet Adrm Mickiewicz. Here professor ^кил with a family till 1873. In those days the area of the park did not exceed 4 hectares. At the heart of its planning regular style from the very beginning dominated, only subsequently it was added several sites issued in the English free style. In 1948 the name of A. V. Suvorov was appropriated to park. By this time the territory reached it 7,5 hectares. Further work on improvement of a park landscape was continued, rare and valuable trees in the decorative relation began to land. Now the area of the park makes more than 60 hectares.
Suvorov Street imperceptibly passes into the central park avenue which is the main composite axis. She becomes isolated a decorative pond. There was a small wooden house belonging to the commander earlier. In 1894 because of decay he was born, and on its base is constructed new which burned down in 1939. In 1950 on its place established A. V. Suvorov's bust (bronze casting from the original of work of the famous sculptor I. M. Rukavishnikov, 1904).
If to curtail from the central avenue to the right, the path will lead to a big picturesque reservoir. Here, as well as on a pond, white and black swans float. In park in general there are a lot of birds, there are even owls, and in the small open-air cage peacocks walk about. It is quite often possible to see quick and not so timid squirrels. In old part of park the lindens put during lifetime of Suvorov remained. And all about 70 species of trees and bushes grow here: oak, maple, hornbeam, elm, pyramidal poplar, acacia, blue spruce, pine, birch, acetic tree, sea-buckthorn and others. The decision of the State committee on conservation at Council of ministers of BSSR in 1963 the park is declared by a nature sanctuary of republican value.
From park we get on V. I. Lenin Square again. Let's go outside Pushkina and, having passed Kobrin restaurant, the square of Morozov, again we will appear at Liberty Square. From here it is possible to pass on Sovetskaya Street (former Brest). Almost at its beginning on the right side there is a small stone building (house No. 6) with a memorial board on a wall. Here in 20 — the 30th years there was a secret address of the B PTDC underground organization. Sleva is seen the gloomy building of the former prison in which activists — members of PTDC of B and KSMZB once pined, and in days of fascist occupation underground workers anti-fascists spent the last days of life. This building is supposed to be turned into the museums where materials about heroism of fighters for freedom will be collected. At the end of old part of Sovetskaya Street there is a high school No. 1 — the former gymnasium. Behind it several constructions in which at the end of XIX — the beginning of the 20th century there were warehouses. Opposite to school — the long one-storeyed building of the former barracks of the second battalion of the 149th Tamansky regiment — here now shop of remzavod. Further away on the right side, behind school No. 1, the cases of the former station of horse mail constructed in 1846 were placed. Originally they united only arches. The central building formed with two lateral the internal economic yard. With the advent of the Polesia railroad value of horse mail fell, and in 1882 the building was adapted for military hospital. Later in it the hospital opened. In the first day of the Great Patriotic War the hospital where took wounded fighters was placed here. They were not managed to be evacuated, and many seriously wounded died when Germans rushed into Kobrin. In post-war years here too there was a hospital and when for it new spacious cases were constructed, here in 1978 the interschool industrial practice combine moved.
At the end of Sovetskaya Street the small public garden on the left side turns green. In it there is a monument to V. I. Lenin. Behind it — the Vodokanal building. On its wall at an entrance the memorial board in memory of the tankmen of the 22nd tank division who died in June, 1941 which was ordered by the major general V. P. Puganov is fixed. From here the channel of the Bond behind which there was that bloody battle is visible.
Behind the channel cases of Kobrin spinning weaving mill tower. On turn of the road conducting to new regional hospital and policlinic there is an obelisk. On this place during the Great Patriotic War fascists shot underground workers. Around gardens of state farm of "Patrika" were stretched, Mukhavets nearby proceeds. Recently in neighboring places constructed a dispensary and boarding house for veterans of war and work.
Having visited the western suburb, we come back to the city. On a fork of streets Soviet and Pushkina costs the monument to A. V. Suvorov built here in 1964. The author of the project is the Leningrad sculptor V. S. Chebotaryov. The figure of the commander is turned on the West, the right hand he leans on a sword, and left — specifies afar. The words told them are involuntarily remembered: 'All Europe will vainly move to Russia..."
Let's pass down the street Pushkina — one of the most beautiful highways of the city which is built up with new houses with modern shops, points of household services and cozy cafe "Klenok". From Liberty Square we will go to the bridge through Mukhavets. At the rise the street turns left on September 17 (former Klyashtornaya, i.e." monastic"). On it there is no time, coiling, the left sleeve of Kobrinki proceeded. Over time it shoaled, dried up and was filled up. The street which conducted to the monastery was so formed. The man's Spassky monastery is founded by the last Kobrin prince Ivan Semenovich in 1497. And in 1812 in July the last phase of Kobrin fight was played here. On a porch of the remained main building of the monastery the general Tormasov accepted capitulation of the remains of the broken Saxon case headed by the commander — the general Klengel. It is stated on one of the memorial boards fixed on a facade at an entrance. Other board is devoted to employees of militia, the dead on duty in the first post-war years. In the building city and regional offices of internal affairs are placed.
... So, we at the bridge. There were once main serf gate in the lock, the hill on which castle strengthenings settled down towered slightly further. They were born during laying of Moskovsko-Varshavskoye Highway. And the Castle mountain was gradually broken off for an embankment construction. The bridge burned in 1915, 1939, 1941 and 1944. A present design — post-war. The bridge is built with that calculation that under it freely there passed vessels. Having passed on its middle and having looked down, at the river, it is possible to see the slogger tow, transporting huge barges with coal, iron and manganese ore, various industrial goods and equipment, building material, the wood. From here the beautiful panorama of Kobrin stretched on both coast of Mukhavts opens. On that party old wooden St. Nicholas Church is visible. It is constructed in the first half of the 18th century and is protected by the state as an architecture monument. But nevertheless the most interesting sights on this side of the city.
On the right closely to the bridge the monument to the heroes of 1812 who won the first victory within Russia a cash - Napoleon's troops rises. His author is the Kobrin sculptor Mr. Markov. After in 1915 kayzerovsky soldiers broke a bronze eagle and memorial boards from a pedestal, the monument in such disfigured look staid about fifteen years. Then on the empty pedestal in the 30th years set up Kosciusko's bust executed by the sculptor A. Vidatskaya living in Kobrin. In 1951 the original form of a monument was almost completely restored, the figure of an eagle with a wreath was executed by the Minsk sculptor M. Kerzin. T. Kosciusko's sculpture was transferred to the Brest regional museum of local lore.
Near a monument, is closer to the river, stone Alexander Nevsky Cathedral towers. It is built in 1868 on the place of a mass grave of the Russian soldiers who were killed in action on July 15, 1812. It is a monument of architecture of late classicism. In 1961 during a thunder-storm in a dome of a cathedral the lightning struck, and it lit up. The fire was extinguished, and the building is repaired then in it the planetarium was placed. Now there branch of the State archive of the Brest region. On the left side of a cathedral fencing where Mukhavts's floodplain begins, the remains of the deep ditch which was once surrounding the Kobrin lock are seen.
From Liberty Square in east direction one more ancient street leaves. It long did not change the name which specified: from here the way to Pinsk begins. Only in 1939 Pinskaya Street received the present name — May Day. When in several years after war laid thermal and sewer communications here, at the bottom of a ditch found the remains of the ancient timbered pavements relating to the XVI—XVII centuries.
On Pervomayskaya Street there are several interesting buildings. On the left side at the corner, opposite to a drugstore, there is a two-storeyed house. At the beginning of the century it belonged to a certain native of the Ottoman Empire, the big specialist in east sweets. Several decades in a row there was a confectionery bench, best in the city, which attracted constantly both locals, and Kobrin's guests. The tradition is to some extent observed — in this building and now the confectionery shop whose products also go in great demand is placed.
Before the most Kobrinky whom on the thrown bridge the street crosses on the right in depth the one-storeyed building of classical style is seen. It is constructed in 1862. Now there the city communication center is placed. On that side of Kobrinki there is a small yellowish house — in it Hitlerites suited the officer hotel disguised under the Red Cross. In 1943 the mine enclosed by the underground worker destroyed many fascists here.
The history and at the two-storeyed house No. 27 down the street May Day. It is movie theater "on September 17". And in 1928 there was a private cinema hall of "Bike" ("Fairy tale") here. In 1939 in this building there took place meetings of the workers supporting reunion with BSSR. During war the movie theater escaped, and in it in July, 1944 after release of the city there took place the operational meetings of a staff, 1 ~ go the Belarusian front.
Behind the intersection of streets May Day and Kirov the square of Puganov begins on the right. In pre-war and first post-war years the market was at its place. It called new contrary to that, ancient. Here traded in hay, straw, there were ''furdecoys" (cart). In the early fifties during community work days this territory was arranged well, trees are planted. So in the city there was one more recreation area. And in 1959 in this place decided to create a memorial of the fallen soldiers and guerrillas. Now the bottom of a pedestal on which there is a figure of the soldier who mournfully inclined the head has a mass grave of 174 died Kobrin's liberators. Their names are cut on six plates. Here V. P. Puganov and A. I. Morozov's graves.
On the opposite side — high school No. 2. In it the Hero of the Soviet Union V. N. Kirmanovich studied. Called up in 1940 for military service, he from the first days of war appeared at the front, participated in many battles. On August 22, 1944 the battery of the captain Kirmanovich near the city of Zhigar (Lithuanian the Soviet Socialist Republic) reflected attack of the opponent, having destroyed 14 tanks that predetermined success of approach of the Soviet troops in this area. On a wall of school the memorial board devoted to V. N. Kirmanovich is established.
Opposite to school — old park. Behind it the ancient Kobrin orthodox and Catholic cemetery on which there are very ancient burials was placed. The cemetery existed in XVIII, and it is possible, and in the 17th century. It is designated on the earliest city maps. Here Adam Mickiewicz's brother Alexander with all family is buried. On a grave — skillfully executed monument in the form of the grieving angel. There are also other burials having historical value. On old gravestones the known surnames: Kosciusko-Sekhnovitskiye, Vereshchaki... But the main sight of a cemetery is the Peter and Paul church which arose at the end of the XV century. Once it stood where now there is a building of regional Recreation center. She was visited by A. V. Suvorov. The name "Suvorov" was still assigned to it (by the way, so it appears also in church documents: "Petropavlovskaya-Suvorovsky"). And transferred it here in 1911 after capital restoration.
Pervomayskaya Street comes to an end. It is a little at some distance, on turn of the beginning Pinskoye Highway, at the bridge via the channel, one more monument. It is tragicly well-known Slope, the place of death of many inhabitants of Kobrin shot by fascists in 1941-1943. Above a mass grave there is an obelisk with a memorial board. And behind the bridge where the trunk Polesia main takes the direct direction to Pinsk, the monument rises. It is memory of Komsomol members — guerrilla demolition men who waged "rail war" in the years of occupation all extent of the railroad from Kobrin to Pinsk. The monument is built by the Komsomol organization of the city and area to the 40 anniversary of release of Kobrin and symbolizes continuity of generations. Visit there.
Being in Kobrin, you, of course, paid attention how many in the city of gardens, and, probably, were surprised, having found Among other fruit plantings peaches, apricots, a walnut and even grapes — black and white. Have a talk with owners of such house, and they willingly will tell how to get similar miracles, for certain will treat with these fruits, exotic for Belarus, moreover and will offer seeds and shanks.
Kobrin's inhabitants are always ready to show hospitality and are glad to see guests in the old and kind city!