The oldest professions

Long since the fair number of townswomen was engaged in washing of linen. This work exhausting health was conducted manually. The washing machines significantly facilitating work of the laundress entered the general use quite recently. There were no also modern detergents in the past. And many tried to save on a simple laundry soap, applying the tincture from wood ashes called "meadow". Usually each laundress served constant customers, mainly families of wealthy Jews and officials. Weighty bales with dirty linen were dragged by laundresses on zagorbka, in the same way came back to clients. Payment was made by the piece. The coming laundress erasing at home clients for a day payment was a kind of this widespread profession. A lot of trouble was brought upon the laundress by ironing in official shirts of starched cuffs and shirtfronts that was fashionable before revolution. Before emergence of electric irons in the course there were pig-iron irons of various designs, with pipes and without. Made related all of them only the fact that for heating charcoal served. However, individual laundresses were brought only in the seventies. The laundry of public use appeared in Kobrin only in post-war time.

Smiths - one of the most ancient and the professions inspiring respect which representatives at many people were surrounded with a mystery aura. In the recent past on suburban streets of Kobrin anvils of several handicraft smithies tirelessly ringed. It is indicative that unlike other professions sharing on specifically Jewish and not - Jewish, at smiths of delimitation was not observed. Most often the craft of the smith was hereditary. At an anvil the master worked with an invariable journeyman hammerer. Depending on a type of products hot or cold forging was applied. Long ago times when all iron products passed through skillful hands of smiths sank into oblivion. And they were an uncountable set, since a needle both nailing and finishing the military and hunting weapon. The rapid development of the industry accompanied with mass release of cheap metal objects of daily consumption gradually reduced a role of forge skill, having left sharply outlined sphere on its share. Presently he condescended mainly to agriculture level. The place of cozy smithies with the flaring horns at plants of economy was strongly taken now by huge forge shops in which the traditional manual hammer gave way to the powerful mechanical bulks which inherited its former appointment.

As widespread look cargo and partly passenger transport to Polesia a long time served izvozny trade. Its need was caused by poorly developed network iron and highways. In Kobrin several Jewish families were engaged in this business. Their central point was in the wooden building on the Market square on which place the building of TsSU is built. Here orders were taken and contracts were signed. Vans balagul were incomparably massivny more capaciously than regular carts. For protection against weather falsities of the truck had the oval awnings covered by tarpaulin. In a stable of a balagula there were several horses heavy trucks, including spare. Depending on a road condition and the volume of freight two or four horses in a van were harnessed it was loaded to hundred poods which were transported on distance to 100-150 versts. In any weather on highways and country off road terrain gradually paced near truck produblenny the sun and wind of a balagul. Besides delivery of goods for merchants on some routes of a balagula served also unpretentious passengers - mainly Jewish poor. Trucks of the facilitated design were for this purpose used. It is possible to imagine what for fascinating travel occurred in the trucks filled to a limit, making a din shivering on potholes of country roads. Wandered thus the whole families, usually with a heap of children, it is frequent with chest babies. Here really, the more the merrier.

From time immemorial our ancestors scooped water directly from the river or a stream if those proceeded close. Used more often, applying state terminology, mine wells with wooden fellings. Masters of well business at first made a felling of bars of strong breeds, carefully banishing separate links. Links of a felling were consistently mounted in previously dug hole. Often the well was constructed together on border of possession of two adjacent neighbors.

In these parts in more remote place served as the integral accessory of a well high "журавель" by means of which of depth of a well water got. Later and convenient application of a collar with a chain became more fashionable. Only in the thirties traditional wooden fellings gave way to concrete rings.

Relatively not so long ago Kobrin roofs were covered gonty, straw, is more rare the neozinced tin. And here K. Paustovsky who visited Kobrin in war of 1915 remembered that roofs in the center were tile. On roofs it was possible to judge prosperity of the house owner to some extent. Gontovshchiki, or gontar, on special machines cut from aspen, thin plates of gont with a narrow groove in reinforced part are more rare than fir-tree bars. They quite often covered even brick houses.

From thirtieth years the city administration forbade gonta, recommending in exchange roofing felt, roofing material and a galvanized tin which for many builders was too expensive. It is remarkable that the first mention of gonta for the Kobrin lock goes back to the end of the sixteenth century. Now the ancient craft is so thoroughly forgotten that the museum of A. V. Suvorov hardly got in due time a few gont for overlapping of part of a roof.

From an extreme antiquity our remote ancestors out of any competition had straw roofs, in local popular speech of "eaves". Not only for one and all economic structures, but also for houses. Separate links of eaves consisted from three-or four-articulate sandpipers – strongly connected straw bunches. For their production especially strong and long rye straw was selected. Despite the seeming primitiveness, "eaves" had a number of large advantages from which main – general availability and durability. Quite often primitive "eaves" endured sickly wooden fellings.

The magnificent flakes of a green moss increased decades in some cases reliably protected straw from rotting. In heat the eaves gave a cool on an attic, and covered from overcooling in the winter. The last eaves tumble-down houses ceased to give an originality to our suburbs only in the last decades. To remember pertinently artificial revival of straw roofs recently in the West. For creation of a romantic aura and for the purpose of customer acquisition began to cover with straw small tourist hotels in Holland and some other countries.

Occasionally in a warm season on city streets there was a huge van to the full loaded with rags and other waste. It was the evreytryapichnik, on present terminology – mobile place of acceptance of utility refuse. At its emergence on the neighboring yards there was a noisy vanity. Hostesses with children took out earlier saved up rags and in eager rivalry tried to discover rags, unsuitable for the house use, and other second-hand articles in exchange for which it was possible to help out several small coins. This sort the goods were valuable raw materials for production of high-quality rag paper. However, tryapichnik did not disdain other any dobrishk: linking of newspapers, bottles, non-ferrous metal.

A. Martynov


Names of articles

Search in the website

Our partners