Brown coals it is one of the youngest grades of coals, with small extent of carbonification, transitional a look from peat to coal. Content of ashes as a part of brown coals fluctuates from 6 to 45%. Warmth of combustion varies from 2500 to 5000 kcal/kg. Svezhedobyty brown coal contains a large amount of moisture (to 60%). In the open air moisture evaporates, and its contents decreases to 30%. At influence of an atmospheric precipitation brown coals quickly disappear and turn into a fine dust. At long storage brown coals self-ignite.
Average chemical composition of brown coal: carbon of 69%; hydrogen of 5,2%; oxygen of 25%; nitrogen of 0,8%.
Why are called brown? Because for the color these coals have brown coloring. If to classify them by appearance, then it is possible to allocate the following types of brown coal: earthy brown coal is the friable, melkokuskovy and easily scattered material; dense brown coal: generally consists of brilliant and opaque pieces; lignite is dense educations which kept wood cellular structure; resinous brown coal – very dense, dark-brown and even black, in a break shining like pitch; listovaty, paper brown coal, or dizodit, represents the thin-layer decayed vegetable weight which is easily divided into thin leaves; peat coal, as if felt, similar to peat, often contains many foreign impurity and sometimes passes into the aluminous earth. The maintenance of combustible elements and ashes fluctuates at various brown coals over a wide range;
Depending on moisture content it is possible to allocate 3 groups of brown coals: B1 – humidity more than 40%; B2 – humidity of 30-40%; B3 – humidity less than 30%.
Purely brown coals are applied to domestic needs of the population, to power needs and layered burning in boiler installations with grid-iron fire chambers, dust-like burning in stationary boiler installations, productions of construction materials (cement, lime, a brick), productions of liquid and gaseous fuel, absorbent carbon, an aglomerirovaniye (okuskovaniye) and sometimes even to coking. The oxidized coals are used for production of humic preparations (fertilizers, mountain wax and ugleshchelochny reagents).
Layers of brown coal have linzovidny character, power changes from 1 to 30 m. Recently there is a development of use of brown coal as raw materials for production of synthetic liquid fuel, and also for gasification with the subsequent receiving fuels and various oxygencontaining connections. The main formations of brown coal began in the mesozoic and Cainozoic periods of 250 - 65 million and 65 - 2 million years ago respectively.
Fields of brown coal often are located near coal. As raw materials, brown coal because of the low cost are considered perspective fuel: reserves of coal lie, as a rule, at a small depth of 100 meters and more therefore brown coal is extracted in the easiest and cheap open way, in cuts.
However according to the qualitative characteristics such as a coal formula, warmth of combustion, an ash-content and moisture content brown coal concedes to coal: has high content of volatiles, at the expense of it as it was already told, brown coal is inclined to spontaneous ignition. Traditional layered combustion of brown coal leads to environmental pollution by oxides of nitrogen, sulfur and other harmful substances.
Brown coals are transported by all means of transport. During the winter period these coals are exposed to freezing in transit and the producer has to take preventive measures preventing their freezing (drying, a peremorazhivaniye, an omaslivaniye). Not sorted and sorted coals are transported piles in open vehicles. The sorted coals are allowed to be transported in packing.
Storage of fuel is carried out in specially equipped warehouses. The coals arriving on a warehouse keep within stacks. Laying of coal in stacks is made layers. It is desirable to store brown coal in the place protected from sunshine and an atmospheric precipitation.
Fields near villages: Bystrits, Lepesa, Lutsevichi, Podberye, etc.