1812: unfairly forgotten hero

Still the figure of one of three commanders of the Western Russian armies — the general Alexander Petrovich Tormasov remains in the shadow though he only received the highest award of the Russian Empire for Patriotic war of 1812 — an award of the St. apostle Andrew the First-Called. Why the destiny was so unfair to this brave and skillful commander?

Streets of the Russian cities are not called by the name of the commander of the Third observation army though even those who ordered much more smaller connections received this honor. Even on a pedestal of a monument to Kutuzov at the Borodino panorama in Moscow among figures of military leaders Tormasov is not visible. The few memoirists left the memories of the general. However, in Military gallery of the Winter Palace his portrait George Dow's brushes are. The reason of this is covered in difficult character of the general, his unpopularity in troops and absence of the brilliant military genius which it replaced with diligence on service and conscientious execution of the duties.

Nevertheless, a military stone, the gimper Tormasov, it was "tough nut" for Napoleonic marshals. Under the leadership of Tormasov the first indisputable victory of the Russian army over Grande Armee of Napoleon Bonaparte was won. It happened on the western suburb of the Russian Empire, in fight near Kobrin. There, as the military theorist wrote a background Clausewitz, there was "a brilliant capture of crew of Klengel in Kobrin Tormasovym" whose military maneuver "made strong impression". It is necessary to think, both on the, and on the opponent.

Alexander Petrovich Tormasov began the military service the lieutenant in the Vyatka infantry regiment. Several weeks later in the captain's rank it became the aide-de-camp at the column Ya.A. Bruce. In 1774 Tormasov is entitled the prime minister-major and in three years of the lieutenant colonel with appointment as the commander of the Finnish egersky battalion created by it. Soon the sensible lieutenant colonel was noticed by Potemkin, and, appointed the lightest prince the commander of the Alexandria easily horse regiment in the colonel's rank, he began to send local Tatars across the Crimea, having shown the last where crayfish winter. The commander of crew major general Tormasov was in Izmail which commandant was a general lieutenant M. I. Kutuzov. During the Russian-Turkish war Tormasov received the first award — the Order of Saint George of the 3rd degree.

At the Polish town of Motar of the shelf of Tormasov vdarit on the opponent. The column headed by it stormed Prague — the suburb of Warsaw. In the fall of 1794 Tormasov took Kosciusko prisoner. The Polish king Stanisêaw II August Ponyatovsky sent it awards of the White Eagle and St. Stanislav, and the Russian empress awarded the order St. Vladimir the 2nd degree and the Gold sword with diamonds and the inscription "For Bravery". Thus, future commander of the third observation army in 1812 belonged to a galaxy of nice Ekaterina's eagles.

Military career of the general, after 35 years of blameless service, could terminate on December 11, 1807 when the emperor Alexander I dismissed Tormasov with the right of carrying a uniform and full pension. However the unexpected death of the wife followed, and Alexander Petrovich addressed with the application again to accept it on military service. On June 9, 1808 he was appointed the commander-in-chief in Georgia. In 1809-1811 the count Tormasov was the military governor Astrakhansky and Caucasian. Therefore, predecessor of other hero of 1812, general from an infanteriya Alexey Petrovich Yermolov.

Alexander Petrovich not only was at war, but promoted development of barter in the North Caucasus. In 1810 on the funds allocated from treasury, the commander of the Separate Caucasian case and the glavnoupravlyayushchy general from a cavalry Tormasov in Georgia four salt shops and six exchange yards for merchants (Russian, Armenian, and after also Nakhchivan and tiflissky), Cossacks and mountaineers — Prokhladnensky, Naursky, Lashchurinsky, Prochnookopsky, Ust-Labinsky and Konstantinogorsky were created.

Lowering the further details of service on the Caucasian line where Tormasov pacified revolts in Imereti and Abkhazia, we will note that by the beginning of east campaign of the French emperor to Russia Alexander Petrovich was the commander of the Third reserve observation army.

The general from a cavalry Tormasov in 1812 was resisted by the Austrian and Saxon cases, according to Schwarzenberg (Karl Philipp Fürst zu Schwarzenberg) and Rainier (Jean-Louis-Ébénézer Reynier). By the way, compatriots delivered to the Austrian field marshal prince Schwarzenberg in Vienna a horse monument. However, it is necessary to pay them tribute, not for the Russian campaign at all.

Let's remind, in July-August in the southern Lithuania Schwarzenberg and Rainier with 51 thousand people against Tormasov who had 35 thousand settled down. And only in September when there arrived with the Danube army admiral Chichagov with a force of 35 thousand people, the ratio of forces radically changed. At the same time P. V. Chichagov was appointed the commander-in-chief of the joint army. On time it approximately coincided with occupation by French of Moscow (about defeat of Saxon crew of the general G. H. Klengel near Kobrin which happened 15 on July (27), 1812.

In the same fall the emperor Alexander Pavlovich enjoined to go to Tormasov to the main apartment of M. I. Kutuzov and instead of fatally wounded prince Bagration to accept the Second western army under the beginning. Being in the main rate, Tormasov together with the Russian army acted in a foreign campaign. Whether as compensation that its army transferred Chichagova, whether remembering about it not only military merits in the Caucasus, or perhaps and for all combined the emperor Alexander appointed on August 30, 1814 Tormasov the commander-in-chief of Moscow instead of the count Rostopchin.

The fighting general managed to prove also in a peace field, having restored the burned ancient Russian capital. Many contemporaries highly appreciated Tormasov's activities for revival First-throned. So, as you can see, after all in vain did not put in Moscow of a monument to Alexander Petrovich.

Igor Bukker


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