Tormasov Alexander Petrovich

The general from a cavalry Alexander Petrovich Tormasov (1752 - 1819) was a member of the State Council, the gentleman of all Russian and some Prussian and Polish awards, had the Gold sword with diamonds and the inscription "For Bravery". His ancestors belonged to old Russian noble families. The grandfather, oberkomissar the St. Petersburg admiralty, was respected by Peter the Great.

Ten years Alexander was accepted in pages, in Peter III's reign, and was at the Highest yard till 1772, and then passed to service into the Vyatka infantry regiment in the lieutenant's rank. In several weeks in the captain's rank it is appointed by the aide-de-camp to the count Bruce. In 1774 the rank the prime minister-major is appropriated to A. P. Tormasov, and in three years it is made in lieutenant colonels with appointment as the commander of the Finnish egersky battalion created by it. Soon the clever and prompt lieutenant colonel was noticed by Potemkin and, selecting business people for the begun campaign in the south of Russia, demanded him to himself. In 1784 Potemkin is appointed by Tormasova the commander of the Alexandria easily horse regiment with the colonel's rank.

During the second Turkish war Tormasov accepted the first active participation in military operations in a campaign of 1791, being in army under command of the prince Repnin. Granted on March 21 by the major general, he was appointed the commander of crew. In June of the same year Alexander Petrovich is in Izmail where the general lieutenant M. I. Kutuzov was a commandant then. Under his supervision he makes successful investigation - search beyond Danube, at the same time with an easy cavalry stops approach of Turks, and on June 28 becomes one of organizers of a victory, having made courageous attack to the flank of ottoman army. A.P. Tormasov received the first award for these military operations - St. Georgy's award of the 3rd degree.

After the conclusion of the Yassky world the Russian army went from coast of Danube to Poland to suppression of armed revolt under Kosciusko's leadership. Being in Levanidov's case, Tormasov performed several successful operations. So, ordering the group made of several easily horse regiments it broke the risen Poles at the town of Motar. On September 28, 1794 at a siege of Warsaw struck victorious blow again. The broken Kosciusko wounded threw the saber and exclaimed: "End to Poland!" At capture of Warsaw it was entrusted to Tormasov to pursue and disarm the Polish troops fleeing Warsaw. The king Stanislav Augustus sent it awards of the White Eagle and St. Stanislav, and after revolt suppression the empress awarded the order St. Vladimir the 2nd degree and the Gold sword with diamonds and the inscription "For Bravery".

After accession to the throne of the emperor Paul I A. P. Tormasov it was appointed the chief of the Medal kirasirsky regiment, on February 6, 1798 it is granted by the lieutenant general, and on September 18 the Medal regiment began to be called Kirasirsky of Tormasov a regiment. On July 11, 1799 Tormasov was dismissed from army, having undergone anger of the emperor, but in a year is employed with restoration of all ranks and ranks again. Moreover, on December 6, 1800 Tormasov is appointed the chief of leyb-guard of his Kirasirsky Majesty of a regiment and every other day the commander of leyb-guard of the Horse regiment which chief was Crown Prince Konstantin Pavlovich.

The service in guard allowed to be personally known to the successor of a throne grand duke Alexander Pavlovich, and at accession to the throne of the young monarch on September 15, 1801 A. P. Tormasov was awarded by the general's rank from a cavalry and appointed cavalry inspector Dniester, and on February 8, 1802 - Liflyandskoy of inspections.

On January 26, 1803 A. P. Tormasov becomes the Kiev military governor with submission to management of the Minsk province. In 1804 he is engaged in formation of army on coast of Dniester to which compelled deterioration in the relations with Turkey. With the end of the charged work it was granted St. Alexander Nevsky's award.

After the Tilsit world Tormasov asks for resignation, motivating it with deterioration in health and faultless 35-year service. Satisfying a request, on December 11, 1807 the emperor Alexander I dismissed him with the right of carrying a uniform and full pension. Alexander Petrovich was sure that his military career terminated, but the unexpected death of the wife forces to address with the application again to employ. On June 9, 1808 he was appointed the Commander-in-chief in Georgia.

Having arrived to the destination, Tormasov was convinced of complexity of a situation in the Caucasus: Persia and Turkey tried to unite for joint actions against Russia. Abkhazia declared disobedience of Russia, Dagestan waited for support of Persia to make the same. For deduction in obedience of the Caucasian people Tormasov had only 42 thousand troops. Thanks to contentions between mountaineers, and also Turkey and Persia it managed to avoid big military operations from their party. Besides under his supervision there were such famous generals as Kotlyarevsky, Lisanevich, Simonovich who won victories not number, but ability. When Persians broke a truce and moved to Tiflis, Tormasov himself hurried them towards, having sent to round through Lisanevich's mountains with an order to take the enemy unawares and to destroy. As a result of sudden attack more than 700 Persians were killed, the winners who lost only 21 persons got all camp, guns and banners. Together with an award to Lisanevich the emperor Alexander I sent to Tormasov diamond signs of an award of St. Alexander Nevsky and ordered to declare the order where it was told on all army: "Such unusual feat will serve as an example to posterity that diligence, bravery and work replace number of troops, overcome the obstacles of a priroyoda and triumph over the numerous enemy".

The fear inspired in Persians and Turks by victories allowed Tormasov to pacify the revolt which began in Dagestan where the tsar Solomon who was contained under arrest in Tiflis managed to escape. On November 16, 1810 Tormasov there began a fortress siege Akhaltsykh, but in ten days removed it, having learned that in fortress plague began. Being afraid of distribution of an infection, he established strict quarantine measures, without having allowed plague to Georgia. Having come back to Tiflis on December 6, 1810, Tormasov sends all family of the tsar Solomon to Russia, having begun to prepare actively for a campaign against Turks. By this time it had about 18 thousand of operating army. However military operations did not happen because of indecision of Turks. In September, 1811 Tormasov planned to start further actions, but was given new assignment.

Having awarded the order to Tormasov of St. Vladimir of the 1st degree, the emperor Alexander I appoints him the Commander-in-chief of the third reserve army. It had to protect the southern part of Russia. Having arrived to army, Tormasov found it consisting of three infantry cases and the cavalry case of the count Lambert. In total there were 54 battalions, 76 squadrons, 9 Cossack regiments numbering 43 thousand people at 168 tools. Further four more Ukrainian Cossack regiments joined them.

On July 15, 1812 Tormasov with the main forces moved to Kobrin. Wishing to mislead the enemy, he sends group of the major general A.P. Melissino to Pinsk, thereby having forced the French general Rainier to move in the same direction. At this time the count Lambert and the prince Shcherbatov took Brest and the next day approached Kobrin. Dividing false idea of a peredvizha of scientific research institute of the Russian troops, French did not notice how they appeared in an environment, and after persistent resistance were forced to give up. The 9th staff officers, 57 subaltern officers, 2234 privates were prisoners, 8 guns and the 4th banner were taken. Tormasov's losses consisted of 77 killed and 182 wounded. Respecting bravery of French, Tormasov returned to captured officers of a sword.

The Kobrin victory was of great importance. It disturbed the enemy and disseminated the myth that Napoleon will crush Russia in hundreds of thousands of soldiers who directed here. After the Kobrin victory Tormasov borrowed Pruzhana and sent groups to Bialystok. The horror embraced Warsaw and all nearby lands, the French officials from everywhere were going to run. That Kobrinskaya, a victory for Russia, the first, gained by Russians in 1812 was more joyful. The guns and banners taken in Pinsk and Kobrin were the first trophies taken in Patriotic war.

Adjustedness and accurate validity of military orders are shown much quicker, than in other areas of human activity. However, as well as feeble-minded tongue-tie. You ordered - and a minute ago the quiet mass of people started moving, it went there where you directed it, the commander, that is the driver of regiments. And a grief to you if you were mistaken: the battlefield will become covered by motionless bodies of your soldiers and companions - and there will be no forgiveness to you. For ever and ever.

Alexander Petrovich was a good military leader: rigid, clever, circumspect. And this time actions of his subordinates confirmed steady reputation of their commander: they acted this way that was not left almost at once to the opponent of any chance not only of a victory, but also on rescue. The name of Tormasov was glorified across all Russia, the delight was expressed by shouts of pleasure when in the Moscow theater sang:

"Glory to the general Tormasov who struck forces enemy!". Thanking Tormasov reskripty, the emperor Alexander I granted him an award of the 2nd degree of St. George and at a time 50 thousand rubles, "Because, - the emperor wrote it, - I know that your state "is not very superfluous".

Encouraged by awards and attention of the monarch and the Fatherland, Tormasov wanted to continue military operations, but the lack of the food and ammunition did not allow it to make it. On July 18 it moved to Kholmsk, but stopped in Antopole, having learned that Rainier's army already connected to Schwarzenberg's troops and they move ahead towards to take a revenge for Kobrin defeat. Tormasov was going to meet them from the prepared positions at Gorodechna. On July 31 military operations began. The prince Schwarzenberg attacked Tormasov from the front, and Rainier sought to bypass his left wing. In such fighting order both armies all day till the dead of night battled. Tormasov successfully reflected all enemy attacks and completely broke two horse regiments sent to the back of the Russian army. Enemy troops were forced to recede. Russians remained in the field of battle, having taken prisoners of 4 officers and 230 privates, from French of the killed and wounded there were 933 persons. Tormasov understood that it is impossible to keep further as enemy troops are exceeded several times by Russians and not to be surrounded, made the decision to recede, constraining an impact of French. The purpose was one - to connect to the Danube army which after the conclusion of the Bucharest world went to it".

Skillful actions Tormasov deprived Napoleon's army of a reinforcement the 30-thousand Austrian case which came back to Volhynia. Moreover, as a result of separate collisions with the Austrians they captured 150 people and three Austrian standards - the only trophies in the only war which Russia waged with Austria are taken. On September 9, 1812 all Danube army lead by Chichagov came to Lutsk, having begun to total up to 60 thousand people with Tormasov's army. Considering superiority over the Austrian army headed by the prince Schwarzenberg, Tormasov and Chichagov decided to attack them. But Schwarzenberg, without aggravating a situation, passed for Bug, having left the territory of Russia. The Russian land was cleared of the enemy here, and the southern Russia did not see more banners enemy.

Soon to Tormasov the Highest command came to go to the main apartment of M. I. Kutuzov and instead of the wounded prince Bagration to accept the administration over the 2nd Western army. Thus he left southwest borders of the empire, having kept them from invasion of the enemy, having shown vigilance and care. He took care as well of export of food stocks from Volhynia, Podoliya and Kiev that they had not to be conceded to the enemy.

On October 8 Tormasov arrived to Tarutino where there was Kutuzov who managed to unite the 1st and 2nd Western armies by this time. Kutuzov very hospitably met him and appointed the commander of army, reserving only the Supreme order actions. In three days the army acted from Tarutin to Maloyaroslavets. During the events here of fight Tormasov constantly was at Kutuzov. In battle under Red Kutuzov intending to bar by the main forces a way to Napoleon charges it to make Tormasova what the last with honor coped with, having crushed Napoleon's rear guard and having taken 6 guns.

After Krasnensky battles the main Russian army did not participate more in battles. Kutuzov pursued Napoleon the strengthened groups. Tormasov constantly was at him, caring for preservation of army, considering that hard frosts came nearer. After Napoleon's transition through the river Berezina Kutuzov temporarily charges all army command again to Tormasov who gave it in I Will wag. Here it was awarded imperial attention. For the great part taken by it in Patriotic war, Tormasov received an official message of thanks and St. Andrew the First-Called's award.

A. P. Tormasov was in the main rate at performance of the Russian troops in a foreign campaign. In December, 1812 it and Dokhturov are appointed chiefs of two columns into which the Main army was divided. When Kutuzov fatally got sick, the emperor Alexander I charged to Tormasov command of the Main army. The last took it to Lyutsen and witnessed Lyutsensky fight. After this battle he requests the dismissal in connection with deterioration in health. Its request is granted by the emperor, and he forever leaves a military field in which so valorously served 40 years. Appointed the member of the State Council, Tormasov goes to St. Petersburg.

Upon return of the emperor Alexander I from Paris to Russia extraordinary meeting of the State Council. The senate and the Synod decided to ask to erect the winner monarch about a permission to it a monument and to give the name Blessed. Among the deputies who made the application on August 3, 1814 there was also Tormasov.

Having arrived to St. Petersburg, the emperor Alexander I, appointed Tormasov to one of the positions major at that time - the Commander-in-chief in Moscow. Tormasov justified trust of the emperor, having managed to do for a short time enormous work on restoration of the city, satisfaction of needs of citizens for what residents of Moscow at the end of 1815 considered a duty to testify the gratitude to the emperor that he to them appointed such chief who, "keeping laws" "was equally attentive to rich and poor", "strong and weak, in honor real and in poverty staying".

In August, 1816 Alexander I, having arrived once again to Moscow, built Tormasova in count advantage". Last time they met on August 1, 1818, then the king Prussian, visited together with Alexander I Moskvu, awarded the order to Tormasov of the Black Eagle. Alexander Petrovich's health continued to worsen, in the spring of 1819 attacks of an illness amplified. The summer gave relief, but in October situation it became hopeless. He could not lie, sat in chairs, but still was engaged in affairs minutes of simplification. Even on November 11 wrote with own hand letters. On the night of November 13 the illness amplified, at 6 o'clock in the morning Tormasov died on the 67th year from the birth. Muscovites saw a big funeral procession him to a grave in Donskoy Monastery. Spouse column A.P. Tormasova with whom it was combined in 1797 and happily lived 10 years, nee von Gejking, was a liflyandsky noblewoman. Their son Alexander died in 1839 in a rank of the gentleman of the bedchamber. With his death the family of counts Tormasov stopped.

A. P. Tormasov was high growth. The handsome in youth, he kept majestic appearance till an old age. The dandy from the youth, and in advanced litas was scrupulous in relation to clothes and it looked in the war and in battles. His quick-tempered temper was replaced by good nature. Simplicity and aspiration to an order distinguished Alexander Petrovich in house life. Subordinates hardly served at it awards as the good service was considered by him as a duty of everyone for which there is nothing to award. It was hard to get used to a strict order and accuracy which he demanded in everything both in a wartime, and at management civil also. As the commander Tormasov belonged to those military people who do not blind brilliant qualities, but are able to take a victory from the developed circumstances. Deserve special attention of its ability of the military administrator which were shown them during service and are confirmed with the choice of Kutuzov who charged it management of army in the most disturbing time. The honored soldier, the patriot of the Homeland, Tormasov left unforgettable memories of the forty-seven-year service to the Fatherland from which twenty eight years in the general's rank.


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