Napoleon Mateusz Tadeush Orda (polsk. Napoleon Mateusz Tadeusz Orda; On February 11, 1807, the village Vorotsevichi, the Pinsky County, the Minsk province, the Russian Empire (nowadays — the Ivanovo Area of (Brest region), Belarus) — on April 26, 1883, Warsaw) — the Belarusian writer and the composer, the musician, the artist, the teacher.
As the artist is most known for the sketches of the architectural monuments and districts connected with life and activity of the famous people in the territory of Belarus, Ukraine, Lithuania and Poland on which not only estates of acquaintances to us the Belarusian places, but also architectural monuments of other countries are represented: palaces and locks of Ukraine, Lithuania, Poland, France, etc. Thanks to Napoleon Orda's heritage we can see and estimate the architecture masterpieces imprinted by it which are not on the earth for a long time. Life and Napoleon Orda's creativity – one of pages of history of national culture of Belarus. Napoleon Orda was born in a family estate of Vorotsevichi (now the village Vorotsevichi in Snitovsky village council of the Region of Ivanovskoye of the Brest region) in a family of a Kobrin marshalk, the engineer-fortifikatora, leader of the nobility of the Kobrin County Mikhail Orda and Yuzefy Butrimovich, daughters of the pinsky head Mateja Butrimovicha.
The father died when Napoleon was two years old, and mother was brought up its by one. Got primary education in the parental house, continued further study in 1819 at the age of 12 years in the Svislochsky gymnasium, since 1823 studied at Vilensky university at physical and mathematical faculty. Was a part of secret student's society "Zoryane" for what in 1826 it was expelled from university. Together with Adam Mickiewicz, Ignatiy Domeyko, Jan Chechot Napoleon Orda was arrested and spent more than a year in Vilensky prison. In 1830 at the age of 23 years served in a Guards horse regiment of the Lithuanian case of the Russian army. Took part in revolt of 1830 — 1831 for what it was awarded — a gold cross of Poland by "Virtuti Militari". For participation in revolt it was ranked as "rebels of the second category", and it had to be banished to Siberia, and the entail property of Vorotsevichi is confiscated. However, to avoid it, Orda left the country, lived in Austria, Switzerland, Italy, France. Since 1833 lived in Paris. It was trained in playing a piano at F. Chopin, was on friendly terms with A. Mickiewicz. In the middle of the 1840th years was the director of the Italian opera in Paris. In 1843 married Frenchwoman Irena Bagla.
In 1856 after the announcement of amnesty to political refugees Napoleon who already was 50 years old left a family in Paris and returned home in Vorotsevichi. Lived at the sister of the landowner Hortensius Skirmunt in Molodovo's manor of the Kobrin County of the Grodno province, then moved to Volhynia where was a house teacher. His son Witold in 1870 returned home and married the Pole. N. Orda at 76-year age in Warsaw died. According to the will he was buried in a patrimonial tomb in Yanov — nowadays the city of Ivanovo of the Brest region.
In archive the documents lighting N. Orda's life in 1880 are found. In "Office of the Minsk Civil Governor" fund it is stored: "Business on the report of the chief of the Minsk provincial gendarme management to the Minsk governor about need of carrying out a search for the apartment of Napoleon Orda who is engaged in drawing of plans of the cities and fortresses and departure of drawings abroad" for March 28 – on April 10, 1880, in which three documents on five sheets.
His name in the history of world culture
Napoleon Orda became history as the master of an architectural landscape. Napoleon Orda traveled much, sketched architectural landscapes of Belarus, Ukraine, Lithuania, Poland, and also France, Spain, Portugal, Prussia and Austro-Hungary. Its works are of great value for historians of architecture and restorers, many objects did not remain so far. Visible travel agencies of Europe use Napoleon Orda's engravings in the advertizing leaflets.
More than 200 sketches of places of Belarus were left to descendants by Napoleon Orda. On them it is possible to present today how the Vilensky university, the Svislochsky gymnasium, the Bernardine monastery in Vitebsk, tens of folvarok and estates of the small estate nobility which became a cradle of many eminent persons of the Belarusian culture looked in the 19th century.
In musical art Napoleon Orda is known as the founder of the Belarusian school of pianism. He took lessons of composition and playing a piano from Frederic Chopin and Franz Liszt. Its works sounded from scenes of France, Germany, Poland, Russia. In the 1840th years Napoleon Orda was the director of the Italian opera in Paris. The talented teacher, he is the author of a number of works on the theory of music. In Belgosfilarmoniya ceremonial meeting and a concert at which works of the composer will sound will take place today: polonaises, mazourkas, waltzes, nocturnes.
Short sketch of a course of life of Napoleon Orda
Its works differing in strict documentation are the most valuable source as the majority of the objects imprinted by it does not exist any more or their appearance underwent considerable changes. The art heritage of Napoleon Orda represents more than 1150 water colors and graphic works. Among them there are more than 200 sketches of the places in Belarus connected with life of the famous people and architectural monuments (the Kamenetsky vezha, Mountains Gorecki agricultural institute, locks, monasteries, estates and palaces in Mira, Novogrudke, Nesvizhe, Grodno, etc.). The majority (977) works of art of Napoleon Orda is in the National museum of Krakow (Poland) where they were transferred in 1886 him by the family. The part of drawings is available in the National museum in Warsaw, the album of water colors is in library to them V. Stefanika in Lviv (Ukraine). A big collection of lithographs from Napoleon Orda's drawings the National library of Belarus has.
Napoleon Orda systematized the drawings and spread out according to folders in which works during 1840 — 1880 are collected. The Belarusian material is placed in folders on the Grodno province (to I860 — 1877, 144 tablets), the Minsk province (1864 — 1876, 64 tablets), the Vitebsk province (1875 — 1876, 35 tablets), the Vilensky province (1875 — 1877, 50 tablets), the Mogilev province (1877, 15 tablets). Besides, the artist allocated "portfolios" with drawings on the Volynsk, Kiev, Podolsk, Kovensky provinces, the Principality Poznan, the Western Prussia and Galicia, France and Germany, Spain and Portugal. Napoleon Orda's drawings are widely used in numerous local history editions.
The composer Napoleon Orda is the author of masterly and melodious dancing miniatures - more than 20 polonaises, mazourkas, waltzes, nocturnes, Poles, serenades, and also romances and songs on words S. Vitnitsky and A. Pluga. N. Orda's textbook "Grammar of music" published in 1873 in Warsaw was highly appreciated by Stanislav Monyushka and for decades became the best grant according to the theory of music.
Analysis of creativity of Napoleon Orda
The Parisian period of life brought to Napoleon Orda popularity in wide circles of the European intellectuals. Together Frederic Chopin he played music on evenings in houses Plyaterov and Chartoriysky. Took part in literary meetings, accompanying with playing a piano poetic improvisations of Adam Mickiewicz. Since 1847 worked as the director of the Italian opera in Paris. Was engaged in the composition and teaching music.
Our famous compatriot got art education in studio of the master of an architectural landscape Pierre Gerard. The first cycles of drawings of Napoleon Orda appeared after his travel in 1840-1842 across France and the Rhine area. Then there were cycles on Spain, Portugal, Algeria (1842-1844).
In 1856 after the announcement the Russian emperor Alexander ІІ to N. Ord's emigrants left to amnesty a family, provided life and successful career in Paris and in 49-year age returned home. After death of mother in 1859 in connection with its participation in revolt of 1830-1831 the entail property was confiscated. It was allowed to artist to lease him only. Upon return from emigration he lived in Vorotsevichakh, Grodno (1862-1863), then moved to Volhynia where he worked as the house music teacher for the general Adam Rzhevussky.
Napoleon Orda's drawing. Blessed Virgin's church of Maria, city of Kobrin, 1864.
Napoleon Orda's drawing. City of Kobrin, 1864.
Napoleon Orda's drawing. Hospital Kobrin, 1866.
In 1866 Mr. Napoleon Orda it was arrested on suspicion of participation in revolt of 1863-1864 and it is put in the Kobrin prison lock.
H. Comer's horde of Kobrin prison
H. Comer's horde of Kobrin prison
In 1867 the court-martial sentenced the artist to dispatch to the remote provinces of Russia. Thanks to efforts of the wife and the help of the ambassador of France the sentence was cancelled subsequently. Nevertheless Napoleon Ordu the imperial authorities deprived of the right of rent and accommodation in an entail property. It was only allowed to it to lodge at relatives in Molodovo Kobrin's manor of a povet.
Napoleon horde landscape composer
Heritage of N. Hordes demonstrates that and many-sided was active its pedagogical activity, being engaged in which he acts as the researcher and the scientist. In the mid-fifties he writes "Grammar of Polish" (for French) and publishes it in 1856 in Paris, then in 1858 in Berlin, and in 1874 in Warsaw. The "Grammar of music" which was published in Warsaw in 1873 became outstanding result of its long-term pedagogical and research work. Many decades it was considered as one of the best grants according to the theory of music. He is the author of many piano works, including more than 20 concert polonaises which sounded from scenes of France, Germany, Poland, Belarus; the set of the waltzes got by thin lyrics, Poles, mazourkas and other tool and vocal works was written. When in 1833 N. Orda reaches Paris which at that time was the center of cultural life of Europe and the center of the Belarusian-Polish emigration, it enters "a gold circle" at once - A. Mickiewicz, F. Chopin, F. Liszt, J. Rossini and J. Verdi, Ge. Gounod G. Berlioz, O. Balzac and A. Stendhal, P. Viardo and I. Turgenev, - which promoted blossoming of his many-sided talent.
1. Gastev of L. Delacroix. - M.: Art, 1976.
2. Dolgopolov I. Masters and masterpieces: In 3 t. - M.: Fine arts, 1986.
3. Zbor pomnika ў gistoryi i of culture Belarusi. - Mn., 1984 - 1987.
4. Kulagin A. Architecture and art of rococo in Belarus. - Mn.: Navuka i of a tekhn_k, 1989.
5. Lapshina N. "World of art". - M.: Art, 1977.
6. Art history sketches. - M, 1987.
7. Sketches of cultural history and science of Belarus. - Mn., 1996.
8. Encyclopedic dictionary of the young artist. - M.: Pedagogics, 1989.