Prompt flight of time from the quiet, imperceptible, dozing town under the ancient name Kobrin further and further takes away us. Large-scale buildings and reconstruction to the republican festival "Dozhinki-2009" not only changed, but also changed its historical look. The former image of the city remained in the past and is carefully kept in our "temple of muses", or in the Kobrin military and historical museum of A. V. Suvorov. On numerous city maps of Kobrin and cards of various years collected by the staff of the museum and just fans of old times we see absolutely other houses, streets and the areas which want to take away, to that the city already forgotten and unknown to us …
Kobrin's architecture as one of the most ancient cities of Belarus the sources goes to depth of centuries.
In the 5-4th century of century BC on the Belarusian lands there were round ancient settlements. They served for protection against attacks of hostile tribes therefore became stronger system of shaft, ditches and wooden protections. As a rule, such settlements were placed on heights among bogs and the woods, on islands and capes. Around ancient settlements settlements were grouped. In the period of early feudalism the territory of modern Belarus including Kobrin district, was the western suburb of Kievan Rus'.
According to the legend, Kobrin was founded in the 11-12th century by one of the galitsko-Volynsk princes on the place of the fishing settlement existing from time immemorial on the island formed by the delta of the river of Kobrinki at its confluence with the river Mukhavets. Perhaps, having estimated defensive value of this district, the prince enjoined to build the lock thanks to what the settlement turned into the city.
Market square, head of the 20th century.
From time immemorial as shopping center of Kobrin served the city posad with the market (market) square in the middle sheltered at the southern wall of the ancient castle. Exactly here and on adjacent narrow small streets "trade action" was played. Today this area which lost value of the market since 1939 is called Svoboda Square. The extensive malls built in the middle of the 19th century on a market square burned down in an initial stage of occupation of Kobrin by troops of kayzerovsky Germany. The abundance of tile roofs was characteristic feature of building in the center that was evident to observant Konstantin Paustovsky who in a rank of the military hospital attendant visited Kobrin in the summer of 1915. The first floors of the two-storey buildings framing the area along with shops were occupied under hairdresser's, photographic institutions, shoe and sartorial workshops.
Building of congress of magistrates, head of the 20th century (building of TsGiE)
In the 1920th years on the place of the burned-down benches merchants restored shopping center. Pryamougolnaya Square contained up to one hundred small little shops of different function again. Shops and handicraft workshops occupied all first houses of nearby streets. Due to the construction in 1961 of garment factory (nowadays sewing firm "Lona") all this complex gradually was reconstructed and adapted to new appointment. In the architectural relation the former market square is a conglomerate of structures of different styles today. Their age — the 18-20th century of century. From them the oldest three buildings, they appear on the plan of 1798. These are the adjacent two-storeyed houses located in east part of the square adjacent to Pervomayskaya St. The first is a drugstore No. 17 (in the 20-30th of the 20th century — Shidlovsky's drugstore); the second — malls (at the beginning of the XX century there was mail, then — the first Illyuzion movie theater, after war of 1941-1945 — Recreation center with a cinema hall, to the middle of the 90th of the 20th century — Sputnik shop). The building following it occupies the Center of hygiene and epidemiology (TsGiE). In the 19th century it was adapted for congress of magistrates. The magistrate daily considered small civil and criminal cases, and the congress gathering as required in this two-storeyed building considered complaints of the Kobrinsko-Pruzhansky County. In the 1960th years the children's hospital was placed here.
The market square in to Kobrina once was main: since ancient times served as the brisk intersection of trade ways; heralds cried out government directives here, and city a vecha resolved important public questions. She saw execution of the adjudications collecting in old times of the numerous audience. B1939 of after reunion of the Western Belarus with BSSR in memory of that event the Market square began to be called Liberty Square.
The padded Soviet tank near a monument to V. I. Lenin at Liberty Square; first days of the German occupation
In 1940 on it the monument to V. I. Lenin was established. In the very first days of the German occupation for intimidation of inhabitants Hitlerites placed padded Soviet tanks on the square and destroyed a monument. Also gallows on which executed our fellow citizens were soon installed. After exile from the city of fascist aggressors Lenin's sculpture took the former place, and the area served as the center of national meetings and demonstrations, now peace again.
Monument to V. I. Lenin at Liberty Square in the 1940th years, behind a monument - the building of malls which is nowadays destroyed; on this place now - the building of garment factory
In the 1950th years in Kobrin the new area appears. In documents it is registered as A. V. Suvorov Square. However, in 1962 it was decided to be renamed into V. I. Lenin Square. It is easy to guess, as the monument to V. I. Lenin had to receive new "address" now. The decision of the Executive Committee of the City Soviet of People's Deputies No. 70 of April 6, 1965 about transfer of a monument of V. I. Lenin from Svoboda Square on V. I. Lenin Square is stored in Kobrin archive.
For the first time documentary data on our streets meet in "Audit of the Kobrin economy" made in 1563. Today, whatever road you drove in Kobrin, it will surely bring on one of these old streets. Once meeting in the center, on the Market square, now they the long and brisk. They in many respects changed the shape, more than once changed the name and nevertheless kept something from bygone times.
Names of streets, generally corresponded to those settlements in the direction of which they lay, or an occupation of inhabitants: Pinsky, Ratensky, Cherevachitsky, the street Over Kobrinka, Ostrometskaya, Beresteysky — quite so they are designated in the documents "Audits of Kobrin Economy" of 1563.
The Kobrin economy actually arose in 1519 as a starostvo (the state manor which the king allocated for temporary use to feudal lords for service). The Kobrin economy, except the city of Kobrin, included the city of Dobuchin (Pruzhana) and the town of Gorodets. Kobrin as the center of economy, occupied quite significant area: on it 377 yards with houses were placed. Mukhavets the city was divided the river into two parts: the main part of the city with the lock and the market settled down on the left coast of Mukhavts; smaller — "the zamukhavetsky place" on a right bank.
Parade at Liberty Square on November 7, 1954.
On the main part of the city the following streets are mentioned: Cherevachitsky, Ratensky, Pinsky, Bolotsky and the street Over Kobrinka.
Cherevachitskaya Street, according to Audit of 1563, was Pinskaya's continuation in the western direction. Probably it replaced the initial name after a highway construction with Brest, having become Brestskaya Street. During 1921-1939 it changed the name twice: at first was called Legionov Street (in honor of the Polish military formations); appropriated to Legionov Street in Kobrin a name of the Polish Minister of Internal Affairs Bronislav Peratsky killed in 1934 later. Since 1939 is Sovetskaya Street so far.
Ratenskaya Street stretched in the southern direction from the former Market square. Even before emergence of the Kobrin principality, at the beginning of the 14th century, Kobrin district was a part of the Ratnensky principality with the center in of Ratno. Obviously, from here and the name of the road on which left on Ratno. Along with the official name there was also "national" — Divinskaya. According to Audit on Ratnenskaya there were 48 yards. In 1864 the street was renamed in Slavic. Such decision of the Russian authorities could not be pleasant to all its inhabitants. Except Slavs on Ratenskaya many Jewish families lived, to the kobrinchena long since were famous for the tolerance and friendliness to inhabitants of other nationalities. Perhaps, for this reason the beautiful name "Slavic" fell into oblivion. In the period of Poland, in 1921-1939, the street again, as well as in the 16th century, became Ratnenska. Absolutely not for long — from 1939 to 1941 — the street bore a name of one of the Jewish writers — Peretsa Itskhoka Leybusha. And how to be with the numerous Slavic population how Belarusians, Russians esteeming Pushkin and Kupala apprehended renaming? It would be unknown what all this came to an end if not the wise decision to call this ancient Internatsionalnoy Street.
The recovered passable way which arose from time immemorial from Pinsk to Brest lay through Kobrin in the form of two streets stretched parallel to Mukhavts's current. East part turned into Pinskaya Street. The first written mention of it occurs in the document of the middle of XYI of a century: the queen Bona ordered to allocate a site under building on Pinskaya to the court jeweler. More detailed data on it contain in Audit. On this street there were 78 construction sites (almost twice more, than on Ratenskaya), from them 25 plebaniya (Catholic clergy) belonged. The name "Pinskaya" was so exact and convenient for inhabitants that within centuries it was not renamed, excepting the period of the German occupation of 1915-1918 when it was called East. During the Polish period (1921-1939) local authorities deprived the street of the right to bear the ancient, habitual name and immortalized in it significant date for the Polish people — on May 3. With establishment in 1939 in Kobrin district of the Soviet power the street called in honor of the Polish constitution was renamed in May Day.
Krasnoarmeyskaya Street. Repeatedly it changed the name. Branching off from Pinskaya, the street was in the beginning Bolotska as conducted to the village of the Bog. On it, according to Audit in 1563, 31 yards were placed. Later, up to the beginning of the XX century, occupations of its inhabitants — "Bochkarskaya or Blotskaya" (Kobrin's plan of 1798), by Bocharnaya (Kobrin's plan of 1810) and Garbarskaya were reflected in names of this street (i.e. tanning — Kobrin's plan of 1858). However the small brick-works which arose soon led to the fact that the street in 1864 became Factory — quite so it is designated also on Kobrin's plan of 1903.
Transfer of the Peter and Paul church from the downtown on an old cemetery at the end of Pinskaya Street became the scheduled event which changed the name of the street. In this regard after 1912. Factory, close to church, began to call Peter and Paul. In the period of 1921-1939 the street was called as Polna (i.e. field). Since 1939 the modern name — Red Army was assigned to it.
The street Over Kobrinka. Specified in Audit of 1563, it originated from a southeast corner of the Market square. On Kobrin's plan of 1798 this street is designated as Ogorodnitskaya whose name was connected, most likely, with such category of peasants as gardeners. So called a domestics whom the prince put on the earth, having allocated with each 3 morgues (2 hectares) of the earth which main duty was a corvee. Gardeners appeared on our lands after the agrarian reform which is carried out by Sigismund II Augustus in 1557.
Corner of streets Babruysk and Vasiliansky (Lenina and on September 17)
Pervomayskaya Street, 1915-1918.
Then Ogorodnitskaya was chosen by new estate — petty bourgeoises (merchants, handicraftsmen, dealers and simple people) who appeared on lands of VKL in the middle of the 16th century. Unlike peasants possessed a personal liberty and a number of privileges. Over time the street grew twice and in 1864 was renamed in Petty-bourgeois.
Two post cards of the beginning of the XX century on which the same street is signed with different names — "Petty-bourgeois" and "Grodno" are stored in funds of the museum. Both cards are printed in Kobrin private printing house. It is possible to assume that some time of Oktyabrskaya St. (the modern name) was called Grodno. During the Polish period of 1921-1939 of Meshchanskaya St. named Kobrinska. In 1939 this street became October.
"The zamukhovetsky place". "The zamukhovetsky place" — the right part of the city. To audits of Kobrin economy of 1563 it is presented by Ostrometskaya and Beresteyskaya's streets. Going west along Mukhavts Street was called Beresteyska. It was long, by the standards of the 16th century, the street on which 66 yards were placed.
On Kobrin's plans of 1798 and 1810 the street is designated as Pottery. On cards 1858 and 1903 of are Goncharskaya Street. Several families living on Pottery and Goncharskaya went in for this craft. Primitive horns for roasting of pots, bowls, jugs were built on kitchen gardens, far away from structures. Necessary sound clay lay near, in the natural boundary of "Glinishchi" where today the temple of evangelical Baptist Christians is located. On Kobrin's plan made by the Polish authorities in the period of 1921-1939, this street is called by the name of the Polish politician K. Bernatsky.
With establishment of the Soviet power in Kobrin district the street was renamed on Proletarskaya Street. Ostrometskaya Street which is earlier conducting towards the village Ostromichi became Beresteyskaya's continuation to the East. In 1563 on it 50 families were placed. Among sites of inhabitants of Ostrometskaya the church Nikolskaya and her lands appears. Subsequently existence of church was reflected in the name of the street — on all city maps the former Ostrometskaya is designated as Nikolskaya. It was not renamed into the Polish period of 1921-1939. Since 1939 to the middle of 1990 it was called Communistic. Collapse of communistic ideology in the country after events of 1991 led to return of the historical name of Nikolskaya Street which was called so centuries.
Zamkovaya square. On Kobrin's plan of 1798 twelve streets instead of seven existing in the 16th century are specified already. Besides there was one more area — Castle, to the North from Market. Exactly there was Nizhny Novgorod the lock and the posad, and then the town hall was placed.
In 1766 under the decree of the king Stanislav Augustus Ponyatovsky Kobrin it was deprived of the Magdebourg right. The administration of economy from the lock which was in absolutely unsuitable state passed into the estate built on the southern suburb of the city.
In 1795 along with numerous villages of the huge estate Kobrin KeyTo A.V. Suvorov of был the lock with the lands attributed to it is transferred. Suvorov disposed to demolish the remains of castle strengthenings, but this order was not completely executed as it is known that during fight on July 15, 1812 the opponent showed the last resistance on castle ruins. Final disappearance of the last traces of the bulk hill called by "the castle mountain" belongs to the end of the first half of the 19th century. It coincided with laying of Moskovsko-Varshavskoye Highway passing through the downtown. For earthwork soldiers of engineering team completely dug out the castle mountain.
Zamkovaya square, 1915-1918. The modern building of the REGISTRY OFFICE was used by Germans as cable station
On Kobrin's plan in the center the schematic arrangement of the lock is specified. Appears from it that present Lenin Street passes between the top and lower locks. In the 19th century the area where once lower lock settled down, was called Senna, and at the same time Hay the lane from the Market square on Hay was called. On the square there was a treasury building. In 1912 the building of loan noble bank was built, and into the Polish period of 1921-1939 the area was renamed in Bank. During the German occupation of 1915-1918 the area called Commandant's, and adapted the building of bank for cable station.
When in 1920 in Kobrin the Soviet power was established, in one of buildings on this square the district Revolutionary-military committee was placed. Possibly, in memory of this event from 1939 to 1941 the area carried the name — on July 11 (Minsk was freed on July 11, 1920 from the Polish interventionists). It is unknown how the area was called during Kobrin's occupation by fascist aggressors in 1941-1944. After war, in 1948, the square was called Komsomoltsev Square.
In 1987, in days of celebration of the 700 anniversary of Kobrin, it was renamed into 700-letiya Kobrina Square, and in its center established a monument with the image of two historical coats of arms of Kobrin and seven stones boulders, each of which symbolizes century. In July, 2003 700-letiya Kobrina Square was renamed by the decision of the toponymic commission at Kobrin district executive committee in Castle.
Suvorov Street, beginning of the 20th century.
Street on September 17. On the plan of 1798 we see many new streets. For example, the small small street which was bending around the Castle mountain which the bridge through Mukhavets's river connected to Beresteyska. It is Slushnaya Street, that is fair. The name, obviously, was connected with the fact that it passed near the Spassky monastery. On city map of 1810 the street is named by Shlyuzna as finished its drawbridge through the river Mukhavets. Subsequently she was called Bazilianska (on the plan of 1903 — Vasilianskaya). The street received such name because in the building of the Spassky monastery there lived monks-baziliane (the baziliyena — community of monks who lived by the rules developed in the 4th century by St. Vasily later since the 17th century, an uniatsky award).
During the Polish period of 1921-1939 she was named Klyashtorna that in translation from Polish meant "monastic". With establishment of the Soviet power the street was renamed into st. on September 17th.
Alexander Matrosov Street. From the market to Prechistensky church (the territory of modern Matrosov Square) the street which on the plan of 1798 is designated thus conducted: "The street small from the market to Prechistenskaya's church". On the city map made in 1903, the name of the street is specified — Prechistenskaya. During the Polish period of 1921-1939 the street was called School. After the Great Patriotic War the decision of the Executive Committee of the City Soviet of People's Deputies in 1948 to the street appropriated a name of the Hero of the Soviet Union Alexander Matrosov.
Suvorov Street. B1766 of appears Gubernskaya Street conducting to the estate of an administrative manor "Province" which is recently put on the city suburb. In 1795 the manor took over the commander A. V. Suvorov living here in 1797 and 1800 that affected subsequently the name of the street. On the plan of 1810 the street is called Post. On the plan of 1858 she is Gubernianskaya, and on the plan made in 1903, the street conducting from the market to the estate "Province" is designated Suvorov. In one of archival sources it is specified that "Gubernyanskaya" became Suvorov in 1864. The same date is mentioned also in "An album of Suvorov fields of battles" where pictures of Suvorovskaya Street and Suvorovsky Lane of the beginning of the 20th century are printed. The lane received the name Suvorov because exactly here Alexander Vasilyevich passed, going to the Peter and Paul church. Subsequently the lane was included into line of a churchyard of the temple. The temple was postponed for Pinskuyu (Pervomayskuyu) Street subsequently, and on its place the town house of culture is constructed. During the Polish period of 1921-1939 it was renamed into Trauguttova Street, in honor of Romuald Traugutt living in Kobrin district in the 19th century.
The Soviet authorities called it Revolutionary — with such name the street appears in the list of households of 1941. During the German occupation of 1941-1944 it was Lindenshtrasse — the lime avenue. In 1946 Revolyutsionnaya Street was renamed into Suvorov Street.
Near the southern sleeve of river of Kobrinki there was Rechnaya Street. Further the street repeatedly changed the name. In 1864 ten streets received new names. So, Reznitskaya St. began to be called Dirty. It is about the former Rechnaya Street. The street could receive the name "Dirty" because of proximity to yet not absolutely disappeared southwest sleeve of river of Kobrinki and to the river Mukhavets. During the Polish period of 1921-1939 of Gryaznaya St. received the corresponding name — the Curve. The Soviet authorities renamed the street in Belarusian.
Tatyana Nazaruk, on materials
Kobrin military and historical
museum of A. V. Suvorov.