Kobrin key

Kobrin is among the oldest podseleniye in the region. In the Ipatyevsky chronicle (1287) it is mentioned that the city of Kobrin located in the north of the Volynsk earth beyond Pripyat, was possession of the vladimiro-Volynsky prince Vladimir Vasilyevich which in 1286 was bequeathed two testament by Kobrin and Gorodets in widow destiny to the spouse Olga Romanovna. From the first half of the 16th century the city in structure INCL. In one of documents for 1366 Kobrin's owner specifies the prince Olgerd. From it passed to the son of the prince Fedor Ratnensky. In 1404. Vitovt's diploma on possession of Kobrin, Pear, Nesukhaizhami, Milanovichami was received by Roman, one of three sons of Fedor. Roman was an ancestor of a family of princes Kobrin, and the brother Sangushko — Sangushko's families. Approximately until the end of the 15th century Kobrinskiye's princes of the coat of arms the Pursuit owned the Kobrin principality: Semyon Romanovich married to Ulyana, daughters of the prince Semyon Golshansky, and then Ivan Semenovich married to Fedora Rogatinskaya famous on construction of Orthodox churches.

Ivan Semenovich bequeathed the third part of a hereditary and patrimonial manor in Kobrin to the wife Fedora. Donative it was confirmed with the diploma of the king Alexander of June 4, 1507. It is known fundush princesses Fedora, written in Krakow, on the monastery St. Saviour which it carried out, carrying out desire of the dead. The princess wrote down "... tithe i to Sacred Saviour to Kobrinyu and z a mlina that on rjts to Kobrinei, the tenth mjrka ot a zhita, the tenth to the cop v Kobrini and ot yarina everyone the tenth to the cop at Kobrnnizh;... dv taverns volnykh v Kobrini, the village Korchichi and zo vsy the income, iz a tribute, iz polyudem, both z groshm, and zo all ty the income", having put on that the press. In 1512 the king Sigismund I Stary confirmed the settlement of Fedora. Princely time of Kobrin ended with death in 1518 of the princess Anny Semenovny Kobrinskoy, wives in second marriage royal the marshal of Václav Kostevich.

The rich principality drew attention of the king Sigismund I Stary and, according to it privileyu of June 7, 1519 long ago, it becomes a starostvo headed by the new owner — the magnate Václav Kostevich. Actually possession becomes a royal ancestral lands. It submitted to the king, and V. Kostevich governed a starostvo with all princely manors from his name.

After death of the king, it agrees to his another privileyu, the starostvo in 1549 became property of his wife, queen and grand duchess Bona Sfortsi, daughter of the Milan duke. Originally it was Podlyashsky's part, and then in 1566 — the Beresteysky voivodeship.

The queen cared for development of the manor, repeatedly came to Kobrin, encouraged development of agriculture, trade, crafts, a city building. Construction of the channel on boggy lands (now the southwest suburb of the city) which is called the channel of the queen Bona to this day, and extensive royal possession — economy is connected with its economic activity. According to Lustration of the economy which is carried out in 1563 by Dmitry Sapegoy, belonged to a manor 130 dragged lands, from them 78 was subject to payment chinshy, 22 drag were manumissions from any payments and duties. Kobrin had six streets (Chernavchitskaya, Ratnenskay, Pinsky, Italian over river of Kobrink, Ostromichsky and Brest (both for river Mukhavets), four churches, a church, the wooden lock, considerably destroyed.

The manor continued to develop successfully and at the subsequent owner, the queen Anna Yagellonka, the daughter Bona and Sigismund I Stary, Stefan Batory's wife. In 1589 Anna solemnly handed to inhabitants privily on the Magdebourg right (self-government), signed by the new king Sigismund III Vazoy (1587 — 1632). Kobrin was granted the coat of arms and the press. In the territory of Nizhny Novgorod of the lock the town hall is under construction. The table manor of the king becomes the largest, including about 800 hectares of an arable land and about 100 hectares of haymakings. After Anna (died in 1596) (1605 — 1635) Constantius Avstriyskaya, Sigismund III's wife of the Vase own economy.

The central estate of the Kobrin starostvo, and then economy were locks: Top (High) and Nizhny Novgorod (Prigorodok). Time of their construction is dated about XIV in. Creation of strengthenings is known on Stocks in 1549 — 1597. made at the audit of the Brest starostvo entered into practice by the queen Bona in 1549. The top lock occupied an eminence with the bulk hill — the castle mountain (nowadays the square); the Nizhny Novgorod lock settled down in the floodplain. On its place Komsomoltsev Square and Alexander Nevsky Cathedral are located. The cathedral is constructed in 1866 on a grave of the Russian soldiers buried after fight of 1812. The board with words hung on a facade of a cathedral: "In the shadow of this St. temple bones of the Russian soldiers heroes who fell in Kobrin fight on July 15, 1812 are based".

The border between locks passed approximately across the line of the modern bridge. Defensive boundaries of this quite large fortification of the 14th century were Kobrinka falling two sleeves into Mukhavets, the boggy floodplain and a deep ditch from North side. The deep ditch remained along a fencing of Alexander Nevsky Cathedral.

The entrance near which the separate watchtower (Bramah) towered conducted in castle strengthening on a drawbridge through Kobrinka. The last aperture of the bridge was lifting. The lock had eight towers. The entrance went on the castle yard through the main two-story tower in which settled down guards and some services. The lock surrounded parkan — thirty two high walls — gorodn (special rectangular narrow fellings from logs) between the towers put from a tree, an earth shaft and a ditch. In the yard there was a house in the form of a tower with front rooms on the second floor, mosquitoes, closets and different other rooms on the first floor. Windows of front rooms had tin frames, iron lattices. The furniture consisted of oak, lime, pine tables, benches, chests. Furnaces were laid over by decorative tiles. From the back of the house the garden, undoubtedly, one of most the oldest in Belarus settled down. Plums, pears and apple-trees grew in a garden, there were pivnitsa, the arbor (called by a porch), spizharnya with the black furnace and the small house. The second orchard settled down near a pivnitsa. In east tower of the lock (for the right sleeve of Kobrinki) the mill worked. Further in the yard the farmstead including a stable and a well settled down.

The lower lock, judging by Stock for 1597, carried out function of the administrative yard of a starostvo, included a house of the head, three houses wings, and also a number of economic constructions. Nearby was available castle folvark with a set of the main constructions of that time.

The course in the Top lock conducted through one of towers of Nizhny Novgorod of the lock on a drawbridge with a bath in the middle, through the surrounding ditch (mentioned above) and gate of the main tower. In it there was a lifting mechanism which lifted the last bridge span. Walls of the lock were strengthened from outer side by an earth embankment parapet. The lower parts of walls were not filled with the earth and stones, they served as mosquitoes, and in their top part the galleries with fighting platforms covered by a shingle were arranged. Towers came to the end with tent roofs. Structures served as a princely mansion in the yard of the lock. In the lock there lived a gunner who contained the castle weapon (two tools, four guns, arquebuses, guns, iron and stone kernels) and two handicraftsmen who forged iron products.

Castle strengthenings began to destroy gradually in 1796 according to A. V. Suvorov's instructions. The part their some time continued to remain. In ruins of castle strengthenings the Saxon group of the general Klengel capitulated on July 15, 1812. Finally shaft and the castle mountain disappeared when laying Moskovsko-Varshavskoye Highway in the 1840th Earth was used for dumping of a road embankment.

From West side the Top lock was adjoined by the Spassky monastery founded in 1497 by the last Kobrin prince Ivan Semenovich and his wife Fedora at wooden church of Saviour on the left coast of Mukhavts. The monastery had a garden and ponds. According to the inventory description of the first Audit of 1549, in skarbets of church, except different cult objects, there were icons, written on a gold background with suspension brackets from silver twisted hryvnias and jewels. On church choirs the library was located. It had the Gospel of the ancient letter, hand-written books fettered in silver size in the father-in-law (the biggest format of that time) and the first books, pechatanny Cyrillics — "staradruk". The inhabited case of the monastery constructed in the second half of the 18th century in baroque forms remained up to now (st. on September 17, 11). The building facade, judging by one old card, is altered. There was before it no Bramah issued by two high towers with the tent zaversheniye and two low fixing lateral pedestrian passes. On the dried-up and filled up course of the left sleeve of Kobrinki the street is laid on September 17 (former Monastic).

In the 18th century the Kobrin economy ceased to bring in incomes. In 1757 majestically Hedgehogs Fleming merged together it with the Brest economy, abolished voytovstvo and volosts and entered new territorial unit — a key. On the place of former economy there were more than twenty keys. Keys Cherevachitsky, Vezhitsky, Litvinkovsky, Zakrosnitsky, Tevelsky, Ilovsky, Gorodetsky, Kobrin and a number of folvarok unite in larger administrative unit — the province. The Kobrin province bordered on Pruzhanskaya's province, from the West in the north — on lands of a manor of Kivatichi, in the south the border passed but river of Trostyank, and Antonolya and Divin in the east reached lands. Kobrin, nine villages and two a folvarka were a part of the Kobrin key. The city of Kobrin weakened by wars, epidemics and the fires in 1766 according to Stanislav Augustus Ponyatovsky's instructions lost city self-government and was transformed to the ordinary agricultural rural settlement. After these events podskarby VKL A. Tizengauz knowing royal manors was engaged in reorganization of a key. The new estate (folvark) put in 1768 according to A. Tizengauz's order in one kilometer from Kobrin becomes an administrative center of a key. From a town hall and the lock the local administration moved to it. Dlinnaya Avenue connected the city to the estate and began to be called Provincial (nowadays it is Suvorov St.). However, despite all efforts a podskarbiya to lift profitability of economy, positive results were not received because of reduction of population, employment of people on construction (since 1775) the Dnieper and Bugsky channel called by Royal, and general deterioration in a situation in the country. In 1766 the city lost the Magdebourg right.

With 1795 Mr. Kobrin is in structure of the Russian Empire. The earth of economy with peasants were presented or sold to individuals. The Kobrin key with other keys and settlements was granted by Catherine II "in eternal and hereditary possession" to the Russian commander count A. V. Suvorov (1729-1800) for military merits. In Kobrine A. V. Suvorova got the territory with decayed locks and the estate which were accepted by his attorney colonel Koretsky who became to managing directors of a manor. A. V. Suvorov visited him at the end of 1795, coming back from Warsaw. Locks were unfit for human habitation, and it stopped in the estate. Again A. V. Suvorov arrived to Kobrin with the faithful striker Prokhor in March, 1797 in plain clothes a dress of "the peace plowman" without the right of carrying a uniform as it was discharged of service by Paul I.

The count was depressed by resignation. The wounds got at court were told by him, much more painfully received in the war. The owner traveled over the granted villages, got acquainted with a manor. He was confused by the considerable amount of possession much surpassing an entail property of Konchanskoye in the Novgorod province. He invites to himself eighteen officers who resigned appoints them in a manor, promises to allocate with the earth. However temporary rest was soon replaced by the next troubles. According to Paul I's order, the courier-official of secret office Nikolev who arrived on April 22, 1797 takes away the field marshal in Konchanskoye under supervision of the governor of a town Vyndomsky. The officers who settled in Kobrin, suspected of preparation of plot together with A. V. Suvorov were soon arrested and sent for interrogation to Kiev.

There went 2 painful years to Konchanskom. At insistance of the allies of Russia who were at war with Napoleonic France in 1799 A. V. Suvorov is appointed the commander-in-chief of the Russian-Austrian troops in Italy. After successful Swiss and Italian campaigns for health reasons it could not arrive to St. Petersburg where prepared for it reception, and arrived at the beginning of 1800 to Kobrin accompanied by the general P. I. Bagration. Without losing hopes for recovery, the field marshal spoke: "It is necessary for me a rural log hut, a prayer, a bath, gruel yes kvass". Especially loved millet cereal. From time to time he remembered fighting feats, dictated to the historiographer E. B. Fuchs of a note about the last campaign. In Kobrin tested also big pleasure — a message about the birth of the first grandson Alexander. The owner of a rich manor in which more than 8 thousand souls of one male were registered, led a modest life, ate fast food and, despite age and situation, continued to remain the soldier. Even in an icy cold bathed in a pond of park. On councils of the doctor to put on answered more warmly: "I am a soldier". Regularly visited the Peter and Paul church constructed in the 16th century, reconstructed in 1862 but to the project of the architect Vendenbaum in traditional forms of wooden architecture, and in 1911 postponed for a cemetery (Pervomayskaya St). Behind it the name Suvorov remained. Sang in chorus on a choir, possessed a pleasant bass, liked to ring bells and to teach choristers of chorus. Presented churches several icons. However the state of health did not improve. The field marshal was treated by the army paramedic Nahum and the Kobrin doctor Kernison. The concerned emperor wrote it "I ask to God and to return me Suvorov's hero" and sent to it on March 6, 1800 the physician-in-ordinary councilor of state E. N. Veykart with a special reskript together with the son Arkady and the nephew prince A. I. Gorchakov. Imperial favor encouraged Suvorov. He was roused. Next day through the city there passed the summary battalion of Ekaterina's and Moscow grenadierial regiments. The become cheerful generalissimo loving a worship for the personality welcomed heroes of the past military fights which passed on Gubernskaya Street. At the end of March A. V. Suvorov forever leaves a manor.

Still during lifetime A. V. Suvorov distributed part of a manor to the confidants, 450 tithes of the earth became property of the managing director. The central part with the people's commissar and the farmstead house in 1808 was sold by the son Arkady G. Gelvichu. From it passed with Shatilsky which in 1852, judging by one of Adam Mickiewicz's letters to the brother Frantishk, sold them to the brother Alexander (1801 — 1871). The family Mitskevichy after early death of the father (in 1810) fell into difficult financial position. Thanks to support of the uncle priest Józef Mickiewicz, Alexander and Adam could study at Vilensky university, got a grant with a condition of obligatory service after the end of study. Alexander became professor of the right, worked at the known school in Krementsa, the Kiev and Kharkiv universities. He was married (1847) to Therese (1813-1871), Frantishk Terayevich's daughter from Novogrudk. After retirement returned home with hope to redeem the parental house of Novogrudke, are confiscated for Frantishk's participation in revolt of 1830 — 1831. However it was necessary to locate in Kobrin. Having bought a manor, Alexander wrote Frantishk: "... in forty years of wandering on foreign lands, again in the house, the truth not in parental, so God disposed, having awarded us with other merits. Our parents too not in hereditary, and in the acquired house finished the life, and we are fated. Dream of my life was the desire by an old age to gather, but God wished to take away two from this world...". He rejoices opportunities to live together with the beloved brother. However so it did not happen. Frantisek soon died.

Mitskevich lived in the farmstead house about a pond till 1873. Here Alexander wrote books "The Encyclopedia Is Right" and "Course of the Roman Right" (works were not published). During revolt he supported insurgent group of R. Traugutt. The son Frantisek was his agent. In the past Alexander together with Franz Malewski, Nikolay Malinovsky, Ignatiy Domeyko, Dominic Hodkoi other students of Vilensky university actively participated in activity of association of filaret, and since 1822 — phylomats, was arrested and served sentence in the monastery of Franciscans. In 1871 Mr. Alexander did not become.

Same year at the age of 58 years the wife died. The manor passed to the only son Frantishk (1841 — 1873) married to the widow Antonina Traugutt from Kosciusko, Alexander's daughter, Stanislav Kosciusko's granddaughter, a chesnik narnavsky, derzhavna Sekhnovichey. Having become a widow/widower the second time, Antonina sells part of a manor of D.A.Zelinskomu, married to M. A. Skovronskaya (from Vereshchako), Alexander Mickiewicz's relative. Alexander with the wife and the son is based upon an ancient cemetery at the Peter and Paul church.

On a gravestone from sandstone the wooden cross braided with an ivy and supported by a hand of the Death angel in a long attire with the hung head is established. The sculpture is made but to Andrey Prushinsky's project from Warsaw. In 1890 the part of a manor (245 tithes) belonged to Maria Skovronskaya, Heinrich Mickiewicz owned a smaller half (196 tithes). Maria Zelinskaya was the last owner of the Kobrin key Kazimir.

Our time was reached by the park a folvarka the Province put in 1768. Though owners of a manor often changed, its planning structure, judging but to short descriptions of different time, continued to exist without basic changes. V. A. Alekseev who is well knowing life and A. V. Suvorov's activity, having got acquainted with the estate in 1905, noted: "... the small, enclosed with a thin paling English garden - tithes 1,5...", which surrounded a shaft, a ditch and orchards. The park occupies the flat territory, has the symmetric and axial construction characteristic of regular parks XVIII of Belarus century, will extend along an axis in the form of a rectangle (scheme). The main composite axis is focused in the direction the North — the South. The lime avenue put after 1905 on the place former of a poplar of black 'Italica' conducts with North side (from the city) in park wide (10 m). Its continuation is the central park avenue. It was issued in the form of a lane from a hornbeam which was emphasized with linear, rather rare landing of a fir-tree (through 6 m among).

The farmstead one-storeyed wooden house was located on the main axis behind ceremonial orchestra seats in the depth of park. The house was small and stood, according to V. A. Alekseev's description, alone. The composite axis the extended small squared pond in deep coast on which lawn single maples, lindens grow becomes isolated. From the house the view of a reservoir with the low hill on the west bank opened (it remained). The channel which connected to the channel of the Bond which was taking away waters in Mukhavets was in the long term looked through.

According to A. V. Suvorov's order office constructions are taken out out of limits of park, and near the house the small chapel is constructed. Were cut down drying out a poplar of the entrance avenue and partial re-planning of park is carried out. In 1894 the house because of decay communicates and under construction new (the last burned down in 1939). On this place in 1950, in the 150th anniversary from the date of A. V. Suvorov's death, the bronze bust of work of the sculptor I. M. Rukavishnikov is established (casting according to the original of 1904). It is surrounded ate a prickly, two cypress gorokhoplodny and thujas western.

Two avenues symmetrized central and cross avenues form system of rectangular bosket which are the basic volume and spatial elements of park. Them 16 are traced. but obsadka of bosket uneven-age. Former lime avenues along bosket did not become in the years of the 2nd world war. Some bosketa on diagonal are cut with young linear landings of a linden, maple acutifoliate. On lawns the birch, a maple yasenelistny, a poplar Canadian, a maple acutifoliate, a hornbeam are planted odinochno or in the form of small groups. The last couple of bosket before ceremonial orchestra seats with a traditional circle is most altered. Symmetrically the house two lindens grew in bosketa. They and three more lindens of time of laying of park remained. One linden in the diameter more than a meter (106 cm) already without top. The largest copy grows in a bosketa, its trunk branches twice, developing powerful krone.

Around historical part of old park on the area about 60 hectares the new recreation park with elements of regular and landscape planning is created. The big reservoir with two islands and the cape which serves as an observation platform is the basis for its composition. The reservoir connects to the old canal from which two sides are put by method of forest cultures of planting of an oak red, birches, lindens. New paths are laid. Pavilions are built.

Small, about 1,5 hectares, the park, oldest in Belarus, kept in general initial baroque composition, but, having become part of city park, gained lines of usual zalozheniye (asphalting of paths, borders from concrete, any range of plants). The historical park has special, memorial value.

On A. T. Fedoruk's materials. Ancient estates of Beresteyshchina

Photos

Kobrin. Fragment of park. 2014.

Kobrin. Spassky monastery

Nadmogilye Mitskevichey

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