Kobrin district – the rich and peculiar region in the floristic relation. The geographical position, climatic and soil and hydrological conditions caused wealth and a variety of flora. In its territory the majority of the plants growing in the territory of all our republic meets. As well as in all moderate zone, grassy forms by number of types prevail over wood.
For preservation of a landscape variety in the area the following custom territories are created:
– the republican landscape wildlife area of "Zvanets", the square at territories of the area – 1 508 hectares;
– the biological wildlife area of local value "Divin-Veliky Wood" the area – 3 000 hectares.
Nature sanctuaries of republican value are the Kobrin park of A. V. Suvorov and "A Suvorov oak" near the village Divin. History of creation of the wildlife area of local value "Divin-Veliky Wood" is interesting. At construction of state farm "Dneprobugsky" unique bogs were drained, the great variety of channels is dug out, on the place of peat developments there were whole lakes. Over time all this meliorative system was thrown, there was a natural bogging of many drained lands. Arose, more precisely, really unique fauna and flora revived. At once behind the lake Lyuban enormous canes in which there are a lot of holes with water where there is a lot of fish grow and perfectly swans feel. Near the lake Lyuban even black storks meet.
In this wildlife area it is possible to visit the rare massif of a monoprepotent grabnyak which is quite rare in the territory of Belarus, to see a lady's slipper real (the quantity has no analogs in Belarus), to admire whole natural "plantations" of fine forest lilies of the valley.
In Kobrin district the lady's slipper, a zubyanka tuberiferous, a censer Sarmatian, kasatik Siberian, a kokushnik long-horned, a water-lily white, a silverweed white, a mytnik skipetrovidny, an ivy ordinary, a hiding place ovoid and some other grow. They are included in the Red List of Republic of Belarus. From trees the pine, a fir-tree, a birch, an alder, an aspen, an oak, a hornbeam, an ash-tree, a maple are most widespread.
From bushes the filbert, a buckthorn, a guelder-rose, a juniper, raspberry, blackberry, a honeysuckle ordinary, various willows, currants and other types are most widespread.
Among grassy plants about 80% make perennials. Odnoletniki and biennials meet on arable lands, roadsides of roads, glades more often. Among them the special group is formed by ephemeral plants which life term from germination before maturing of seeds does not exceed two-three months. Therefore to see such plants as a krupka spring or Tal's rezukhovidka it is possible only within 2-3 months. For so short term there are also some grassy perennials-efemeroidy in the spring (anemonies, crested birds, goose and bear onions, a ravnoplodnik, chistyak spring, etc.), characteristic of forest communities.
Except the vast majority of the plants living due to photosynthesis the semi-parasites (ochanka, maryannik, pogremk, a mistletoe, etc.) receiving water with the salts dissolved in it meet sticking to roots of other plants, and also the parasites (a dodder, Petrov a cross) who do not have a chlorophyll and painted in pale yellow or dirty-pink color. Recently in villages lives less people and if plants with a mistletoe at houses were rare earlier, then now their great variety. It is considered that birds, mainly thrushes take part in distribution of a mistletoe. Like parasitic plants also not numerous plants-saprofity (a nesting place real and a podjelnik hairy) feeding on the decaying vegetable remains look. The rosyanka growing on riding bogs and the puzyrchatka living in water supplement "menu" digesting the caught insects.
The xerophilous plants-kserofity (a fescue sheep, a thyme, a yastrebinka hairy) which are economically spending moisture settle in the light pine woods, on dry sandy soils. For it is superfluous the humidified alder thickets vlagolyuby-gigrofita are characteristic (kasatik airovidny, kizlyak kistetsvetny, sedge). In an oak grabovykh, the maple and lime woods not moral types are usual: goutweed, yasmennik odorous, zvezdchatka lanceolate. On sfagnovy bogs it is possible to find a Labrador tea, a cranberry, blueberry, a pushitsa narrow-leaved. Telorez and rdesta, water-lilies and a jug – representatives of water flora.
The bear onions (or a ramson) which are quite often forming dense thickets on eminences among bogs and in the shady broad-leaved woods, a kislitsa (hare cabbage) and also censer Sarmatian with large flowers and a peculiar aroma which for curative properties quite often call "balm" occur at us also.
Here and there it is possible in the deciduous and mixed broad-leaved woods it is possible to meet still the only wild-growing lily in flora of Belarus – a lily kudrevaty. It is called also by a lily-martagon or a saranka. And she received the name "imperial curls" because of the flowers with the pinkish petals unbent up reminding curled curls.
In damp grabnyaka and fir groves the ivy ordinary – the only evergreen liana in our latitudes and the only representative of family araliyevy in flora of Belarus occasionally meets. This is the living witness of those eras and times when the climate was much warmer.
Very ancient group of plants are mokhoobrazny, living in the wide range of ecological conditions. The Red List of Belarus included 15 types of this group. Mosses lodge not only on the soil, but also cover the lower part of wood trunks, stones and the decaying dead wood, and the largest moss – fontinalis fire-prevention – expands even in reservoirs. Moss carpets and pillows give to the wood fantastic color.
In the dry pine woods cover with almost continuous carpet the soil a moss dikranum wavy and fancifully curved small stalks of a moss of Shreber. Once at construction of inhabited wooden houses widely used a moss: to them caulked walls. And now it is very pleasant to see the cepes which are sticking out of a moss, and on Bol high dry places under a moss often there is a lot of brilliant green. On riding bogs sfagnovy mosses undividedly dominate.
Kobrin district is rich with mushrooms. One of the earliest mushrooms are morels and lines. Morels appear on edges and clearings of the deciduous woods, lines – in pineries. In June "kolosovik" – birch mushrooms, slippery jacks, cepes begin to grow. In an original variety of a mushroom kingdom it is possible to be convinced only of the end of summer. Boletuses and saffron milk caps, aspen mushrooms and milk mushrooms, honey agarics and mossiness mushrooms, russulas and coral milky caps and ask for a basket. Many edible fungi, – for example such as mokrukha fir-tree, a blewits violet, a pautinnik red or a cap annulate, collect seldom as they are a little known to mushroom pickers. The mistake of the mushroom picker is often similar to the sapper's mistake. In the wood there is a lot of not only mushrooms, inedible because of bitter or burning taste, but also fatally poisonous mushrooms. Sometimes they warn bright coloring about the properties (fly agarics), sometimes look and is quite harmless (a false sulfur-yellow honey agaric, the pale toadstool similar to a green russula).
In the woods there are a lot of chanterelles. They meet directly whole plantations. It is necessary to know places of their growth only. Also single copies meet. However, they are much larger. In the fall the wood is especially rich with brilliant green and subbrilliant green, and also the Polish mushrooms.
Earlier, when there was a big livestock of cattle, directly near houses it was possible to gather champignons (the national name – small stoves). Now they meet much less often. But and today there are a lot of raincoats.
In the woods there are a lot of mushrooms tinder funguses. Their emergence on live trees demonstrates defeat of a tree decay. As a result of it it will die and will be processed by mushrooms and bacteria. Having turned into a humus, its wood will serve as fertilizer for other generations of the wood.
In the territory of the area it is much felled trees, however in many places big territories are allocated under fir-tree landings. The woods of the area are unique. Some of them possess the special lines characteristic of the natural primitive woods: it is special age and spatial structure, rich specific structure, existence of a large number of high-age trees giants and some other signs. About 40 years ago locals called many woods oak groves, cudgels, grabnyaka, etc. Unfortunately, from them remained little. In many places directly in the middle of the wood nearly century apple-trees and pears meet (and, not only dichka). These are the pathetic remains of the former farms. In the people these places were called "landmarks" or "zakhuda". After drainage of bogs practically everything was rooted out and made fields on the place of the whole unique woods. From many of them remained only one reminiscence in memory national which will soon leave together with old residents too. Naturally too anybody has no photos of those places. So our descendants should look for some data only in the Polish archives. We did not learn still, to properly protect the nature!
Very strongly meadows suffered, and remained are just in a deplorable state. The meadow type of vegetation sharply decreased. During general melioration many meadows were plowed up, and after a while just neglected an arable land. Meadows are in a deplorable state. If so goes further, then later several generations we will not know what is a meadow (water meadows it is not counted). The matter is that if on meadow sites a long time not to graze cattle or to stop mowing, they grow with bushes and further are transformed to forest communities. It occurs or already happened to the majority of meadows of the area. At the same time nearly a half of them is the share of low-lying meadows. Usually they are located near forest or open low-lying bogs, pereuvlazhnena are similar to them on soils and strongly. There, first of all, sedge reign. In the most damp places thickets of large sedge – sharp, blown up, lozhnoostroy, Omsk meet.
Sukhodolny raznotravno-cereal meadows occur small sites on increases of a relief among low-lying meadows. Their dense grass cover consists generally of cereals. Are usual the fragrant cone giving specific aroma to new-mown hay, a fescue red, a herd grass meadow. Meets lugovik turfy which at big pasturable loading begins to dominate in communities together with a bulrush and a horsetail. Small sedge and rich to a raznotravya are characteristic of such meadows. In June delicate rassechenny flowers the adonis the cuckoo, often creating pink aspect blossoms here; white islands allocate a nivyanik ordinary, in popular speech called by a camomile. The sorrel is sour, a plantain lantsetny, a clover creeping, pogremk, a lady's bedstraw real and tens of other types also diversify a variety of colors of a sukhodolny meadow.
It is a pity for this aroma of new-mown meadow hay. Especially many meadows were in settlements, in the woods. Once they were carefully protected, and before mowing "protected", i.e. did several zakos, thereby marking that this part of a meadow is occupied, and will mow here soon. In each yard there were several cows, it was necessary to mow much and to occupy a meadow were not and simply. People specially went to look out for a grass. To mow down one business near the house, and another on some island among a bog from which hay can be taken away only in frosty winter (on big sledge a catarpillar). Now on these former meadows continuous thickets of bushes.
Inundated cereal krupnoosokovye meadows are located in floodplains of the rivers and are filled in with water during a flood. The kochkovaty relief and a grass cover from the large sedge characteristic of low-lying meadows is characteristic of them.
Bogs are the difficult natural ecosystems combining in themselves lines of the lake and sushi. Their characteristic feature – availability of peat and abundance of water. From 80 to 95% of water contain in the peat. The main part of bogs belongs to low-lying, eating on ground waters. Here hygrophilous kochkoobrazuyushchy sedge dominate. Plentifully to a raznotravya: watch is three-leaved, a kaluzhnitsa, lady's bedstraws marsh and uliginose, kasatik water, buttercups, horsetails. In spaces between them mosses are interspersed.
Also riding open bogs meet. Most often it is glades in sfagnovy pine forests on watersheds why received the name. Their soils very poor therefore here only growths of a plant, unpretentious to conditions, can survive. Main of them – the sfagnovy mosses entirely covering a bog derniny. The lower part of plants of a moss dies off in process of growth and forms sour peat poor in mineral salts.
From the bushes and low shrubs growing on riding bogs are most known the tall blueberry creeping on a sfagnovy carpet a cranberry, and also a Labrador tea marsh with its stupefying aroma. Is less noticeable, on riding bogs Andromeda (lined multi-leaved) – a low shrub from family of flowers, heather with gentle-pink jingles). From herbs the pushitsa blossoming early in the spring, and who by summer is hanging out the white gentle sponges which mistakenly take for flowers over a bog is characteristic. Among its hummocks it is possible to meet a surprising plant – a rosyanka round-leaved which fills up a lack of nutrients at the expense of the caught insects.
Also transitional bogs meet. They combine lines of low-lying and riding bogs. Both ground waters, and an atmospheric precipitation participate in their food. The vegetation of transitional bogs is characterized poorer in comparison with low-lying, but richer in comparison with riding bogs, floristic structure. About a half of these bogs are deprived of wood vegetation, the others are covered with rare pine forests and osier-beds with a birch fluffy.
It should be noted great value of bogs in preservation of biological diversity not only plants, but also animals, especially birds.
The woods of the area are exclusively rich with raspberry, blackberry, bilberry, cowberry. During collecting mushrooms and berries in the woods whole "pilgrimage" is observed. Come also you – you will not regret!
The types brought in "Red List" of Republic of Belarus
THE LIST OF RARE SPECIES OF THE WILD-GROWING PLANTS AND MUSHROOMS INCLUDED IN THE RED LIST OF REPUBLIC OF BELARUS AND WHICH ARE FOUND IN THE TERRITORY OF THE KOBRINSKY AREA
Name of a look
|National status of protection||Category MSOP|
|Spatulyariya is club-shaped||Spathularia clavata (Schaeft.)||II||EN|
|Truffle summer||Tuber aestivum Vitt.||II||EN|
|Gigrofor is dubravny||Hygrophorus nemoreus (Pers.) Fr.||II||EN|
|Chanterelle gray||Cantharellus cinereus (Pers.: Fr.) Fr||III||VU|
|Rogatik is pestikovy||Clavariadelphus pistillaris (Fr.)||III||VU|
|Sparassis is curly||Sparassis crispa (Wulfen: Fr.) Fr.||III||VU|
|Pechenochnitsa ordinary||Fistulina hepatica Fr.||II||EN|
|Ganoderma brilliant (the varnished tinder fungus)||Ganoderma lucidum (Fr.) P. Karst.||III||VU|
|Dentipellis is fragile||Dentipellis fragilis (Pers.: Fr.) Donk||II||EN|
|Geritsy, or blackberries korallovidny||Hericium coralloides (Scop.: Fr.) Pers.||III||VU|
|Grifola curly (mushroom ram)||Grifola frondosa (Fr.) S. F. Gray||III||VU|
|Piknoporus is cinnabaric-red||Pycnoporus cinnabarinus (Jacq.: Fr.) P. Karst.||II||EN|
|Fomitopsis pink (pink tinder fungus)||Polyporus roseus (Alb. & Schwein.) Fr.||II||EN|
|Grifola is umbrella||Grifola umbellata (Fr.) Pil.||III||VU|
Name of a look
|National status of protection||Category MSOP|
|Kalitsium covered||Calicium adspersum Pers.||III||VU|
|Henoteka is greenish||Chaenotheca chlorella (Ach.) Mull. - Arg.||IV||NT|
|Henoteka is thin||Chaenotheca gracilenta (Ach.) Mattson-Midd.||II||EN|
|Kladoniya is turfy||Cladonia caespitica (Pers.) Florke||I||CR|
|Gipotrakhina unbent||Hypotrchyna revoluta (Florke) Hale||II||EN|
|Melaneliya sorediozny||Melanelia sorediata (Ach.) Goward & Ahti||IV||NT|
|Menegatstion proburavlenny||Menegazzia terebrata (Hoffm.) A.Massal||IV||NT|
|Parmeliopsis is dark||Parmeliopsis hyperopta (Ach.) Arnold.||III||VU|
|Punkteliya is rough||Punctelia subrudecta (Nyl.) Krog||I||CR|
|Usney horny||Usnea certain Ach.||II||EN|
|Usney blossoming||Usnea florida (L.) Wigg.||III||VU|
|Tsetreliya is tsetrariyevidny||Cetrelia cetrarioides (Del. ex Duby) W.L.||III||VU|
|Everniya is open||Evernia divaricata (L.) Ach.||III||VU|
|Ramalina is dlinnovolosaty||Ramalina thrausta (Ach.) Nyl.||III||VU|
|Lobariya is pulmonary||Lobaria pulmonaria (L.) Hoffm.||III||VU|
|Peltigera is horizontal||Peltigera horizontalis (Huds.) Baumg.||II||EN|
|Peltigera is cheshuyenosny||Peltigera lepidophora (Nyl. ex Vain.) Bitter||II||EN|
Name of a look
|National status of protection||Category MSOP|
|Tsefaloziya is tape||Cephalosia catenulate (Hueb.) Lindb.||III
|Porella is ploskolistny||Porella platyphylla (L.) Lindb.||III
|Andrey rocky||Andreaea rupestris Hedw.||I||CR|
|Ortotrikhum Layelya||Orthotrichum lyellii||II||EN|
|Dikranum is green||Dicranum viride (Sull. et Lesq. in Sull.) Lindb.||III||VU|
THE HIGHER VASCULAR PLANTS
|Name of a look|
|National status of protection||Category MSOP|
|Astrantion is big||Astrantia major L.||I||CR|
|Brovnik is odnoklubnevy||Herminium monorchis (L.) R. Br||I||CR|
|Lady's slipper real||Cypripedium calceolus L.||I||EN|
|Kamnelomka is marsh|
Saxifraga hirculus L.
|Klopogon is the European||Cimicifuga europaea Schipcz.||I||CR|
|Neottianta is klobuchkovy||Neottianthe cucullata (L.) Schlechter||I||VR|
|Sedge bolotolyubivy||Carex heleonastes Ehrh.||I||CR|
|Fir white||Abies alba Mill.||I||CR|
|Violet mountain (high)|
Viola montana L.
|Yachmenevolosnets is the European||Hordelymus europaeus (L.) Harz||I||CR|
|The jingle is liliyelistny||Adenophora lilifolia (L.) A. Dc||II||EN|
|The grape-fern is romashkolistny|
Botrychium matricariifolium (A. Br. ex Dцll) Koch.
Quercus petraea (Mattuschka) Liebl
|The resident of Kozelsk is purple|
Scorzonera purpurea L.
Bromopsis benekenii (Lange) Holub
|Ladyan is trekhnadrezny||Corallorhiza trifida Chatel.||II||EN|
|Onions of a skorod, or onions resident of Ryazan||Allium schoenoprasum L.||II||EN|
|Mytnik is skipetrovidny||Pedicularis sceptrum-carolinum L.||II||VU|
|Myakotnitsa one-leaved||Malaxis monophyllos (L.) Sw.||II||EN|
|Buksbaum's sedge||Carex buxbaumii Wahlenb.||II||EN|
|The ivy is ordinary||Hedera helix L.||II||EN|
|Ravnoplodnik is vasilistnikovy||Isopyrum thalictroides L.||II||EN|
|The hiding place is heart-shaped||Listera cordata (L.) R. Br.||II||EN|
|Trishchetinnik is Siberian||Trisetum sibiricum Rupr.||II||VU|
|Berula is direct||Berula erecta (Huds.) Cov.||III||VU|
|Volzhanka is ordinary||Aruncus vulgaris Rafin.||III||VU|
|The grape-fern is multiseparate||Botrychium multifidum (S.G. Gmel.) Rupr||III||VU|
|Dremlik is dark red|
Epipactis atrorubens (Hoffm. Ex Bernh.) Bess
|Zvezdchatka is tolstolistny||Stellaria crassifolia Ehrh.||III||VU|
|The St. John's Wort is mountain|
Hypericum montanum L.
|Zmeegolovnik Ruysha||Dracocephalum ruyschiana L.||III||VU|
|The willow is bilberry|
Salix myrtilloides L.
|The censer is the Sarmatian||Melittis sarmatica Klok.||III||VU|
|The cranberry is small-fruited||Oxycoccus microcarpus Turcz. Ex Rupr.||III||VU|
|Kokushnik is long-horned|
Gymnadenia conopsea (L.) R. Br
|The water-lily is white|
Nymphaea alba L.
|The silverweed is white||Potentilla alba L.||III||VU|
|Onions bear, or ramson|
Allium ursinum L.
|Lyubka is zelenotsvetkovy||Platanthera chlorantha (Cust.) Reichenb.||III||VU|
|Medunitsa soft||Pulmonaria mollis Wulf. ex Hornem.||III||VU|
Moneses uniflora (L.) A. Gray
|Orchis May||Dactylorhiza majalis (Reichenb.) P.F.Hunt Et Summerhayes||III||VU|
Eriophorum gracile Koch.
|Pyltsegolovnik is red||Cephalanthera rubra (L.) Rich.||III||VU|
|Burdock (burdock) dubravny||Arctium nemorosum Lej.||III||VU|
|Skerda is soft||Crepis mollis (Jacq.) Aschers.||III||VU|
|Baranets is ordinary||Huperzia selago (L.) Bernh. ex Schrank Et C. Mart.||IV||NT|
|The genista is German||Genista germanica L.||IV||NT|
|Zubyanka is tuberiferous||Dentaria bulbifera L.||IV||NT|
|Kasatik is Siberian||Iris sibirica L.||IV||NT|
|Kupalnitsa the European||Trollius europaeus L.||IV||NT|
|Likopodiyella who is filled in||Lycopodiella inundata (L.) Holub||IV||NT|
|Lily kudrevaty (imperial curls)||Lilium martagon L.||IV||NT|
|Linney northern||Linnaea borealis L.||IV||NT|
|The myriapod is ordinary||Polypodium vulgare L.||IV||NT|
|Fescue high||Festuca altissima All.||IV||NT|
|Sedge shadow||Carex umbrosa Host.||IV||NT|
|Lumbago meadow||Pulsatilla pratensis (L.) Mill. S. L.||IV||NT|
|The hiding place is ovoid||Listera ovata (L.) R. Br||IV||NT|
|Shpazhnik (gladiolus) cherepitchaty||Gladiolus imbricatus L.||IV||NT|
|The lumbago opened||Pulsatilla patens (L.) Mill.||IV||NT|
CR – the types which are in critical condition
EN – the types which are under the threat of disappearance
VU – types vulnerable
NT – the types which are in a state close to threatened
KK – Red List