School No. 1 of Mr. Kobrin

Building history where now there is a school No. 1 of Mr. Kobrin, traces the roots back by the end of the 19th century. In those days there was a state wine warehouse. The second floor was not. The building with other constructions which are in the school yard where now workshops of labor training and library are placed belonged to the Ministry of Finance. History of school as educational institution begins since 1910. According to archival documents the 1st men's 2nd cool school is located since August, 1910 in the separate stone wing belonging earlier to the Ministry of Finance, and then Kobrin transferred to the Ministry of National Education after closing in of a wine warehouse.

In 1911 the cool men's school in the separate stone wing constructed in 1897 at the expense of treasury opens 2 2nd. By 1915 in the 1st men's 2nd cool school 99 boys were trained. There was a female change where 42 girls studied. In the second 2nd cool men's school – 85 pupils. In the first 5 teachers, in the second – 3 worked. In each of them there was a religious teacher, the orthodox confessor. Schools gave only primary education. Within two years of training pupils mastered reading, the letter, the account, Scripture bases. Also the gymnastics was taught. (You watch data on structure of teachers and pupils).

From the beginning of World War I (August, 1914) in a type of the martial law of occupation in parish schools stopped, and buildings of present school were transferred under economic needs. From 1915 to 1916 training of 60 children was carried out in the house of the parson Hotkovsky. In 1917 the school was renamed into a public gymnasium of Mr. Kobrin. Tutorial council allowed training of pupils of various religions. In 1919 with arrival of the Polish army the public gymnasium was renamed into the Polish high school. Study was paid. For every month parents of pupils had to pay from 40 to 50 zloties (For comparison: at that time 400 kg of wheat or 50 kg of meat costed so much). In 1923 there was a full nationalization of school. It happened thanks to vigorous efforts of parental committee in the Commission of Education in Diet, and also with assistance of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. The parental committee undertook to prepare apartments for teachers and the respective schoolhouse. On student's contributions, with support and the help of regional diet and Magistrate of Mr. Kobrin in 1924 the construction of the second floor begun on money of the Polish writer Maria Rodzevich was complete.

The first release took place in 1925-1926. School-leaving certificates received 23 persons. In 1926-1927 academic year the banner of school was in a festive atmosphere consecrated. In 1927 the Ministry of Public Education appropriated to a gymnasium the name: "The state gymnasium of M. Rodzevich". In a gymnasium all conditions for receiving strong knowledge, all-round development of interests of pupils were created. Maria Rodzevich is the extraordinary personality with philosophical mentality reflecting on sense of human life, on a patriotism essence, on morality, education problems. It made the significant contribution to development of a gymnasium of Mr. Kobrin. And as we already know, in 1927 the name "The State Gymnasium of M. Rodzevich" was appropriated to a gymnasium. Except an office building and the educational case there was an apartment of the director of a gymnasium (the whole house belonged).

By the way, through the central entrance to the building of a gymnasium could come the director and the faculty. Pupils came only from the school yard. Cool rooms were big and light, tables and chairs wooden. On light walls – pictures and portraits of scientists. No excesses existed in a teacher's room: a big long table and chairs, nearby cases for books and magazines, on walls – pictures. At the beginning of the existence by teachers of a gymnasium there were natives of the local intellectuals. Lawyers, priests, military worked here. The Polesia voivodeship had no HIGHER EDUCATION INSTITUTIONS therefore the Ministry directed to Polesia the students from Poznan, Krakow, Warsaw. Occupations were joint for boys and girls. Since 1929 Mikhail Fanfara, the physicist by training became the director of a gymnasium. 19 subject teachers annually trained 250-300 grammar-school boys. Except the main objects Polish, natural study and questions of modern life, gymnastics were taught Latin. The important place was allocated to religion. Considering interests of pupils from families of various faiths, priests taught religion orthodox, Catholic, Judaic.

On Sunday the assembly hall turned into a chapel – on a scene there was a portable altar and there passed the school liturgy. All grammar-school boys wore a uniform: a dark blue uniform with the postponed boards, a white collar, a dark tie. Girls wore a dress with a white collar. Each grammar-school boy had a ticket and a badge which was carried on a headdress. Work of a gymnasium was interrupted forever by World War II. In 1939 the gymnasium was headed by companion Zubov. On September 1, 1939 World War II began with attack of nazi Germany on Poland. On September 17, 1939 the Red Army crossed the Soviet-Polish border and entered the Western Belarus, and on September 22 entered Kobrin. In November, 1939 the territory of the Western Belarus was included in structure of the USSR and reunited with BSSR. Cultural and educational work along with economic transformations was at once developed.

The order No. 6 of November 29, 1939 companion Zubov was appointed the director of a gymnasium since December 1, 1939, and companion Fanfara M (the director of the Polish gymnasium) from this number is appointed the associate director on a teaching department. Teaching Belarusian began what the order No. 7 of December 19, 1939 confirms "Companion Kvitkevich Alexander is appointed the teacher of Belarusian in the Kobrin gymnasium, at the same time in combination the manager of pedkurs in to Kobrina". The wife Aleksandra Zubova Maria Petrovna taught Belarusian too. Since August, 1940 the free high school to which admitted 120 pupils opened. From competent local population trained elementary school teachers, directed teachers of the senior classes from east regions of Belarus. About premilitary school days wrote in memoirs "Education – a decisive factor of public activity of the personality" the veteran of war and work, the pupil of a gymnasium in premilitary years Sushchuk Alexey Mikhaylovich (the certificate of December 03, 1939 for No. 1315 signed by the director Alexander Zubov remained).

Alexey Mikhaylovich Sushchuk remembered "Thirst for education was improbable. With 4 classes of povshekhny (Polish) school of seven-year term of training I was enlisted in 5 C. Studied in 5 and 6 classes. Began with the alphabet of the Belarusian and Russian languages. Became engrossed in reading of Ya. Kupala, Ya. Kolos, A.S. Pushkin, M. Lermontov, used libraries. The persistence overcame difficulties. After studies were engaged in the militarized circles. Studied a fighting rifle, a gas mask, chemical toxic agents, made multikilometer cross-countries on a cross-country terrain, seized skills of first aid. Equaled on those who already had the Voroshilovsky Shooter badge. From garrison in the evenings military commissioners came to school, gave lectures about world situation, the running high wars. Everything submitted to patriotic education, devotion and protection of the Homeland".

These years the considerable attention was paid to school discipline. The labor mode and an order at school were the cornerstone of teaching and educational process, concerned both teachers, and pupils. For an indiscipline, violation of the rules of the internal schedule of pupils could expel from school what orders on the area confirm. Some intensity was felt. And occurred. On June 22, 1941 peaceful life kobrinchan was interrupted by a rumble of enemy planes. On June 23 in the evening Hitlerites entered the city and began to establish a so-called "new order". For its maintenance the German civil, and also local auxiliary administration was created. The power in the city belonged to Gebitskomissar. In the schoolhouse settled down gebitskomissariat. The Pravitelstvenny Vestnik newspaper in German and Ukrainian in which orders and orders of the regional commissioner Pantser were brought to the attention of the population was issued.

Interest is caused by the facts from memoirs of the schoolgirl of a gymnasium of M. Rodzevich, the inhabitant of Mr. Kobrin who endured the period of the German occupation of Maria Vladimirovna Kritskaya. Maria Vladimirovna remembers: "Before the Great Patriotic War there took place population census. From 13 thousand population about 10 thousand inhabitants were Jews, 3 thousand all other nationalities: Belarusians, Russians, Poles, Turks, Tatars, even Germans and 1 family – French. From 5 German families one family was the German spies. It became clear in 1939 when World War II began and Kobrin there left the German family living in the house where now kindergarten opposite to Belarus hotel. This house was transferred for housing to the 3rd families. New residents were going to bake later pies to note housewarming. When opened the furnace, saw some wires, caused militia. The militia found the transmitter there – the witness about the German spy. Remained in memory of the citizens who endured the occupational mode, the facts of the brutal attitude towards residents. To cajole fascist invaders, Jews presented to the German authorities a gold watch in the form of the carriage harnessed by the four of horses. In the carriage there were a clockwork and a barometer. The German authorities were glad to gifts, and lives did not spare them.

Several facts concern school. With arrival of Hitlerites from city hospital took out Red Army men to the school No. 1, having freed places for soldiers of Wehrmacht. When places for Hitlerites in hospital began not to be enough, Red Army men were thrown out from school. Nobody provided to them medical care, except nurses. Many fighters died. They were buried in holes which dug near school. And to the pilot Udovikov Dmitry the nurse who risking life helped to survive nursed him in house conditions. He returned to a system, victoriously finished the Great Patriotic War and until the end of life remained is grateful to it, wishing happy birthday and on March 8, visiting with gifts. Was the Chairman of Pinsky society of guerrillas veterans. In August under the pretext of registration for delivery of grants in the schoolhouse brought together 180 disabled and sick Jews. They were shipped in cars, taken out to the area of. A name-day also shot. The genocide put to Kobrin's population terrible losses. On July 20, 1944 became in the memorable afternoon for Kobrin's inhabitants. This day troops of the 1st Belarusian front during the Lublin-Brest operation released Mr. Kobrin.

From 1944 to 1945 in the schoolhouse the hospital for the Soviet soldiers was placed, and the Russian-language high school opened on the basis of the former gymnasium was placed down the street May Day (the building of an old kozhvendispanser). 15 classes with 1 on 9 worked. Release of pupils in 1944/45 academic year was not. Our former mathematics teacher Klimuk Lyudmila Vladimirovna remembered those the first post-war school days: "We, pupils, helped wounded of hospital, wrote letters, cleaned and washed the dishes, addressed them with concerts". Since October 1945/1946 academic year began in the school No. 1, and Kondratenko Vasily Petrovich, the participant of the Great Patriotic War headed it. It is awarded the order the Red Star (information of 2011). At that time it was the only high school. In the history of a development of education of school the new stage began. School education developed in the conditions of the Soviet system, reforms, but at all stages the school was "average" with the status, had some features.

The materials taken from the website of SSh No. 1 of Mr. Kobrin are partially used



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