Building of Kobrin post station

Before emergence of the railroads long time in Europe, as well as in Russia, the state horse mail which combined post service of the population with public transport functioned. In the Russian Empire where also Kobrin district entered, work of mail is traced from the middle of the 19th century when along the established routes clumsy passenger-and-mail stagecoaches, to some extent prototypes of modern buses regularly went. Mailings were followed by the mail carrier which wore a uniform and was armed on a case of attack of robbers.

In 1842-1846 intensive construction of a site of the highway Babruysk – Brest which passed through Kobrin and was part of the important highway of the international value Moscow – Warsaw was conducted. Along with a roadwork through each 40 - 50 versts stone buildings of post stations with auxiliary rooms – stables, sheds, pigsties were built. Between the main stations intermediate, so-called "substations" as, for example, in the village of the Dam settled down.

In Kobrin at the end of Sovetskaya Street the building of such station (nowadays industrial practice combine) remained. Further it was essential is reconstructed and considerably lost an original form. 32 horses (for comparison – Brest had 40 horses) were on the staff of Kobrin mail of the 1st category. Except the main highway it served the country directions on Gorodechno – Pruzhana – Slonim and the recovered Pinsky path with three post stations, on each of which there were 8 horses and 4 coachmen. The continuous stage averaged 21 versts.

The movement on the new highway opened on December 1, 1846, however "post race" began only since January 1, 1848. At first each letter was accepted and paid directly in post office, and the tariff very significantly changed depending on distance. Only since 1844 the payment was unified. Then the marked envelopes with relief oval signs of post payment worth 7 and 8 kopeks went on sale (the first Russian stamp worth 10 kopeks for lot appeared in 1857, and the very first brand in the world was let out in England in 1840).

After construction in the 1870th. The Moscow and Warsaw railroad, and in 10 years – Libavo-Romenskaya who passed through Kobrin the post station was liquidated. At first its building was used under military hospital, then the hospital was placed here. According to new situation in Kobrin the post and cable office of the 5th class opened. For it post department rented at the landowner Ghana the wooden house down the street Brest (modern Soviet). Later near this house Gunn constructed stone for leasing to post department (now the People's Court is located here).

At the beginning of the 20th century I. A. Voytkovsky was the chief of mail. And all staff consisted of 4 employees, apart from 2-3 mail carriers. Except Kobrin office in the county which included modern Kobrin, Zhabinkovsky, Drogichinsky and Ivanovo areas post and cable offices were available in Ivanovo, Drogichin, Antopole, Zakozelsk and Zhabintsa with the total number of employees of 11 people. Besides, post offices without telegraph were in Gorodtsa, Divin, Motole and Homsk.

During the 1st world war in August, 1915 in connection with approach of the front the Kobrin post office was evacuated to Mosalsk the Kaluga province where then there was its elimination. After Kobrin's occupation in 1919 by the Polish troops the post office rented the private house No. 7 at Liberty Square. Further for establishments of communication the house No. 8 on Pervomayskaya Street in which till 1915 there was an office the military chief (military registration and enlistment office) was transferred. In pre-war years staff of city mail reached 30 employees, including four mail carriers. Dovgerd headed mail. There was a novelty – the telephone switchboard on 120 numbers which was served by 6 telephonists. A half of numbers intended for intracity use, the others – for rural establishments and a long distance communication.

As the post tariff was excessively high – a non-registered letter of 30 pennies, custom 60 (whereas egg costed 5 pennies), in the 1930th the serious competition to official mail was made by well organized illegal. Special "couriers" brought business correspondence and even sums of money to the main shopping centers of the country on much to the lowered tariffs. Fight against it did not yeild tangible results.

The Polish post offices at the same time carried out functions of savings banks, and deposits could be received in any place. In general communication worked well-coordinated. For example, the parcel with fresh flowers sent from Kobrin in the evening was received in Vilno in the morning of the next day. And parcels were got home, in Kobrin carried them on a supply. Due to the high cost of newspapers and magazines the subscription to them was very small. On all city there was the only small booth of Dvizheniye agency which exclusively traded in periodicals. And as the prices of newspapers "bit" (10 – 25 pennies), needy fans of reading thought up a cunning exit. By agreement with the stallkeeper hired at him for small commission charges the necessary number which, having read, was returned. For fight against return which sharply increased alarmed editions accepted counter-measures: the newspaper put four times was stitched by special percussion caps which were used in footwear. They preserved the newspaper against "poachers".

In the 1930th years kobrinchan broadcasting became usual. To buy the lamp radio receiver – "Telefunken", "Phillips" (domestic was not) – only wealthy people could: cost made semi-annual earnings of the unskilled worker. However, dealers gave long payment by installments of payment. The license fee was also high – 5 zloties a month. Therefore rather poor progressive youth used self-made detector receivers with earphones. Not to pay a tax, the multimeter antenna which was hidden on an attic was used. On such receiver it was possible to listen not only close stations, but also Moscow to "Komintern".

In memorable days of the 2nd half of September, 1939 to me charged to head department of communication at Temporary management of the Kobrin County. The former management ran away, however the vast majority of ordinary mailers remained on the place. To organize them did not make big work, and in competence of everyone there was no doubt.

Within a week of anarchy indoors mails managed for a while fans to profit "neutral" good. A lot of equipment was stretched and destroyed. At this time it was only possible to dream of establishing normal work of communication. The railroad at which track needed to be given to all-union standards did not work. Work of our experts consisted in rendering assistance to field mail. Load of linear services at restoration of the damaged lines was especially big cable both telecommunication in the city and rural areas. Only at the end of October, 1939 work of relation then I could hand over affairs to the professional Krasnoshchyokov began to be established more or less.

Incomparably communication activity scales grew on all indicators presently. First of all, it should be noted that for the first time for long history of our mail she does not huddle in the casual room. The special spacious building of communication decorates the central part of Kobrin. As for figures, they even more impress, the pre-revolutionary Kobrin County occupied considerably the big space, than the modern area. The population of the city also grew up several times. Now around 43 post offices, including 5 city.

10 booths of Belsoyuzpechati work. They provide the population with fresh newspapers and magazines. For the last decades the telephone network of Kobrin district amplified. So, in use of citizens 6160 phones are registered, and in rural areas there are 4470 subscribers. In the city there are 19 070 radio receiving stations, in the village – 17 100.

A.M. Martynov.

Photos

Contact information

Address: Kobrin, Sovetskaya St., 106
Coordinates: 52 °12.6418 'N, 24 °20.3558' of E

Arrangement on the card


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