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Flora

SHPAZHNIK (GLADIOLUS) CHEREPITCHATY

Type: VASCULAR PLANTS (PLANTAE VASCULARES)
Department: POKRYTOSEMENNYE (FLORAL) (ANGIOSPERMAE (MAGNOLIOPHYTA))
Class: MONOCOTYLEDONOUS (LILIOPSIDY) (MONOCOTYLEDONES (LILIOPSIDA))
Order: KASATIKOTsVETNYE (IRIDALES)
Family: KASATIKOVYE (IRIDACEAE)

Look: GLADIOLUS IMBRICATUS L.
         SHPAZHNIK (GLADYYOLUS) OF CHARAPITSAVY

Category of protection: 4



International importance:
Under the state protection in the republic it is for the first time taken in 1964. It is included in the Red List of Belarus of the 1st and 2nd editions (1981, 1993). It is protected in Lithuania, Latvia and Poland.

Description:
Perennial klubnelukovichny grassy plant 30-80 cm high, with the thin upright stalk bearing in the basis of 1-2 scale-like and 2-3 stem lance-linear (xiphoidal) leaves. Bulbous tubers are small, almost spherical, are outside shrouded in thin webby scales. Flowers in number 5-12 (14), in a one-sided kolosovidny inflorescence. Okolotsvetnik 2,5-3,5 cm long, pinkish or purple-violet, wrong, with a curved tube and unequal shares. A fruit - a short obratnoyaytsevidny box with large, slightly winged seeds.

Rasprostraniyeniye:
Mainly East European type of the South of a forest strip coming to the Balkans and into Western Siberia (vicinities Kurgan). In Belarus meets occasionally across all territory, it is the most frequent in Vitebsk (Beshenkovichsky, Braslavsky, Verkhnedvinsky, Vitebsk, Gluboksky, Gorodoksky, Dokshitsky, Dubrovensky, Lepelsky, Lioznensky, Miorsky, Orshansky, Polotsk, Rossonsky, Sennensky, Chashniksky, Sharkovshchinsky, Shumilinsky districts) and Minsk (Borisovsky, Vileysky, Volozhinsky, Kletsky, Krupsky, Logoysky, Lyubansky, Minsk, Molodechnensky, Myadelsky, Slutsk, Smolevichsky, Soligorsk, Starodorozhsky, Stolbtsovsky, Chervensky districts) areas. In the Brest Region. it is noted in Baranovichskom, Berezovsky, the Brest, Kamenetsky, Luninetsky, Maloritsky, Pruzhansky and Stolinsky districts, in Gomel - in Braginsky, Buda-Koshelevsky, Zhitkovichsky, Zhlobinsky, Kalinkovichsky, Mazyr, Petrikovsky, Recyca and Hoyniksky districts, in Grodno - in the Grodno, Dyatlovsky, Mostovsky, Novogrudsky, Smorgonsky, Oshmyansky and Shchuchinsky districts and in Mogilev - in Babruysk, Gorecki, Kostyukovichsky, Krichevsky, Mogilev, Mstislavsky, Osipovichsky, Cherikovsky districts. I.K. Pachosky specified also for Pinsky district of the Brest Region, the Lelchitsky district of the Gomel Region, vicinities of Grodno, Svislochsky and Slonimsky districts of the Grodno Region, the Dzerzhinsk and Kopylsky districts of the Minsk region.

Habitats:
Mainly crude inundated and sukhodolny (water separate) meadows, glades and edges in the rarefied damp woods (fir groves, oak groves, alder thickets), thickets of bushes. Does not take out stagnant moistening. Prefers friable soils rich with a humus.

Biology:
Blossoms in June - July, fructifies in August - September. Entomofil, self-pollination (avtogamiya) is possible. Reproduction seed and vegetative (affiliated bulbous tubers). Barokhor.

Number and tendency of its change:
Grows in the woods at usually small groups, more rare single copies, on a cereal raznotravnykh meadows in valleys of the rivers in places (in the Vitebsk, Gluboksky, Gorodoksky, Dokshitsky, Chashniksky districts) forms quite numerous populations. In a number of observed populations year fluctuation of number of individuals, in a row - a steady tendency to its reduction is noted. In culture in weather climatic conditions of Minsk and Vitebsk is frost-resistant, steady.

Major factors of threat:
Anthropogenous: drying melioration and economic transformation of lands (plowing, building), a pasture and run of cattle, excessive recreational loadings (collecting the blossoming plants, a vykopka for garden sites), damage of a grass and soil cover at cuttings down. Natural: processes of natural overgrowing of meadows wood, krupnoosochnik, plotnokustovy cereals; change of the hydrological mode of habitats.

Protection measures:
"Bialowieza Forest", "Narochansky" and "Pripyat", the Berezinsky biospheric reserve, the Polesia radiation and ecological reserve and a number of the wildlife areas (existing and designed), mainly in Brest ("Bugsky", "Buslovka", "Lukovo", "Selyakhi", "Sporovsky", etc.), Vitebsk ("Vitebsk", "Yelnya", "Osveysky", "Tulovsky", etc.) and Grodno grows in territories of national parks ("Gozhevsky", "Kotra", "the Lipichansky dense forest", etc.) areas. It is grown up in the Central botanical garden NAN of Belarus, in the Botanical garden of the Vitebsk university and on a site in the Republican ecological center of pupils and youth (Minsk). Audit of the known locations and control of a condition of populations, the prevention of economic transformation of lands and preservation of the existing hydrological mode in places of growth is necessary, periodic optimization of conditions of places of growth (clearing), is recommended broader introduction to culture as high-decorative and a herb.

Originators: Semerenko L.V., Morozova T.K.