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PARMELIOPSIS DARK

Type: LICHENS (LICHENES)
Department: LICHENS (LICHENES)
Class: MARSUPIALS LICHENS (ASCOLICHENES)
Order: LEKANORALNYE (LECANORALES)
Family: PARMELIEVYE (PARMELIACEAE)

Look: PARMELIOPSIS HYPEROPTA (ACH.) ARNOLD
         PARMELIYOPSIS TSYOMNY

Category of protection: 3



International importance:
It is for the first time included in the Red List of Belarus.

Description:
Sloyevishche listovaty, rozetkovidny, rassechenno-bladed, with a diameter of 3-4 cm. Blades are narrow, branched, fanlike with the rounded or rough edges. The top surface pale green or ash-gray, opaque, with a brown bordering, with the convex sorediya in the center merging in whitish or bluish-white soral. The lower party of a sloyevishch black, opaque, with numerous dark rubbers. Apotetion are scattered on all sloyevishch, blyudtsevidny, with a dark brown disk and the whitish or light brown sloyevishchny edge, without raid.

Rasprostraniyeniye:
Europe, Asia, North and South America, Greenland. In Belarus shows the properties characteristic of group of northern, or boreal types which center of mass distribution is limited to a subband oak and dark and coniferous (southern taiga type) the woods. The distribution area in Belarus occupies the most part of the Vitebsk Region (Verkhnedvinsky, Gorodoksky, Lepelsky, Polotsk and Rossonsky districts); less often the Region meets in Minsk (Myadelsky district) and Brest (Kamenetsky and Pruzhansky districts), and also it is exclusively rare in the Gomel Region (the Lelchitsky district).

Habitats:
In the north of the republic grows in the coniferous and mixed woods, and in the south it is known only in marsh massifs with island sites of the wood from a fir-tree ordinary, not exposed to drying even during the long droughty periods; grows on trunks (often at the basis) deciduous and coniferous trees.

Biology:
Apotetion meet very seldom. Breeds generally vegetativno (sorediya).

Number and tendency of its change:
Meets locally, separate individuals or small groups reduction of number from the North on the South.

Major factors of threat:
Anthropogenous: all views of cabins of the wood, economic transformation of lands, drying melioration in places of growth of a look and near its localities. Natural: all known places of growth of a look are defined by atmospheric humidity and air temperature, an increase of heatsecurity in combination with increase in deficiency of humidity of air is those major factors which limit its distribution in the territory of the republic from the North on the South.

Protection measures:
Places of growth of a look are in territories of the Berezinsky biospheric reserve, national parks "Bialowieza Forest", "Narochansky" (in the reserved territory of Blue lakes) and "Pripyat". Periodic control of a condition of the known populations and the organization of purposeful search of new places of growth of a look in similar conditions, preservation of the habitats meeting the requirements of a look are necessary. For this purpose there has to be a ban of any silvicultural activity in places of growth and a ban of drying and meliorative actions near its localities.

Originators: V. V pigeons.