TRUFFLE SUMMER, OR TRUFFLE RUSSIAN BLACK
Kingdom: MUSHROOMS (FUNGI)
Department: ASKOMIKOTA (ASCOMYCOTA)
Class: MARSUPIALS (ASCOMYCETES)
Order: TUBERALNYE (TUBERALES)
Family: TRYuFELEVYE (TUBERACEAE)
Look: TUBER AESTIVUM VITTAD.
TRUFLYA SUMMER, ABO TRUFLYA RUSSIAN BLACK
Category of protection: 2
It is included in the Red List of Belarus of the 2nd edition (1993), the Red List USSR (1984). It is protected in Poland and Ukraine.
Fruit body with a diameter of 2-8 cm, roundish or tuberiform. Peridy inseparable, krupnoborodavchaty, black-brown. Warts are firm, tupopiramidalny, Gleb with a diameter of 0,2-1 cm dense and fleshy, with a slight mushroom smell, initially white, when maturing becomes yellow-brown, on a section with marble drawing from alternation light (external veins) and dark twisting (internal veins) veins. Aski (bag) ellipse, 60-70 50-65 microns in size, 1-6-sporous. Disputes are ellipse, brown, with a mesh cover, in 6-sporous aska their size is 24 17 microns, and in 1-sporous aska - 45 30 microns.
Not moral forest look. The area covers Europe and Asia. In Belarus two locations are known: in Bialowieza Forest and vicinities of of Semuradtsa of Zhitkovichsky district of the Gomel Region.
Grows in the woods with deciduous trees - an oak, a beech, a hornbeam, a hazel grove, on soils rich with a humus. Grows and fructifies in the top layer of earth, in the same places - "tryufelnik".
Forms a mikoriza with broad-leaved breeds of trees. Fruit bodies ripen in June - August. Valuable edible fungi.
Number and tendency of its change:
The look is rare everywhere, its number is small.
Major factors of threat:
Change of conditions of growth under the influence of anthropogenous factors (consolidation and pollution of the soil, deforestation, etc.).
Grows in the territory of National park "Pripyat". It is necessary (to forbid the prevention of change of the ecological mode in places of growth all views of cabins of the wood and economic transformation of lands, to limit recreational loadings). It is necessary to carry out audit of location of a look in Bialowieza Forest, to carry out periodic control of a condition of the known populations, to carry out search of new places of growth and, if necessary, to organize their protection. Introduction of a look to culture is recommended (there are data on successful cultivation of this mushroom in Italy and France).
Originators: Gapiyenko O. S., Shaporov Ya.A.