A.V. Suvorov was born the general-anshefa V. I. Suvorova, senator, the person educated, the author of the first Russian military dictionary was born in a family. Under the leadership of the father Alexander studied artillery sciences, fortification, military history. In 1742 it was enlisted by the musketeer in leyb-guards the Semenovsky regiment (over a set without salary), active duty of the beginnings in 1748. In 1754 received the first officer rank — the lieutenant and appointment in the Ingermanlandsky infantry regiment. In 1756-1758 the prime minister-major served in Military board in a rank.
Suvorov received baptism of fire during Seven years' war of 1756-1763. In its first years it was at rear positions of quartermaster department. Was entitled the lieutenant colonel with transfer to the Kazan infantry regiment. In 1759 Suvorov became the officer of the main apartment of the Russian army as "the general and divisional person on duty", more than once differed when carrying out investigation. Participated in battle with Prussian army at Kunersdorf and in capture by the Russian case of the capital of Prussia of Berlin in 1760. Alexander Vasilyevich early showed commander abilities and ability to lead people in fight.
In 1761 Alexander Suvorov already successfully ordered separate group which assisted the case of the general P. A. Rumyantsev in mastering Prussian fortress Kolberg (Kolobrzeg). Temporarily ordered the Tver dragoon regiment, having caused a stir in prosecution of Prussian troops of prince Vyurtembergsky. Then temporarily ordered the Arkhangelogorodsky dragoon regiment. Seven years' war gave to future great commander of Russia an extensive experience, having allowed to learn fighting and moral opportunities of the Russian army.
In August, 1762 the colonel Suvorov becomes the commander of the Astrakhan infantry regiment. From 1763 to 1769 orders the Suzdal infantry regiment billeted in Nova Ladoge. These years creates the well-known "Regimental establishment" — the instruction containing basic provisions and rules on education of soldiers, internal service and combat training of troops. Under its command the Suzdal infantry regiment becomes exemplary in the Russian army on field and mid-flight training.
In 1768-1772 Suvorov in a rank of the foreman and major general (he received this rank in 1770) participates in military operations in Poland, being at war against troops of shlyakhetsky Lordly confederation. She opposed the Polish king Stanislav Ponyatovsky, the supporter of Russia. Suvorov appointed the chief of the Lublin site, ordering crew and separate summary groups, made prompt battle marches and won much by smaller forces convincing victories over confederates.
Military operations in Poland brought to A.V. Suvorov popularity in the Russian army and recognition of the empress Catherine II who saw in the army general of future commander, and an award — the Order of Saint George of the 4th degree. Suvorov won brilliant victories over confederates under Nut, Landskruna, Zamostyem and Stolovichami. Troops under its command of storm seized the Krakow lock which defense the French colonel Shuazi directed, crushed troops of confederates under command of the French military leader Dyumurye, Yu. Sapegi, M. Oginsky (together with a staff Suvorov received the Order of St. Alexander Nevsky for his capture), Orzhevsky and others.
In 1773 Suvorov achieved transfer to structure of the Russian field army. There was the first Ekaterina's Turkish war of 1768-1774. The major general was given assignment in the 1st army of the general field marshal P. A. Rumyantsev and under the beginning separate group. With it he made two successful searches (raid) on the territory of an adverse party and broke large forces of Turks at Turtukaya in 1773 (for this victory Suvorov was awarded by the Order of Saint George of the 2nd degree at once, passing the 3rd) and at Girsovo, at Kozludzhi in 1774.
In battle on June 9 at Kozludzhi (nowadays Suvorov, Bulgaria) the general lieutenant A.V. Suvorov crushed 40-thousand Turkish army under command of the sultan commander Abdul Cutting torch. Battle was a passer, the Russian cases of Suvorov and the general lieutenant M. F. Kamensky after a crossing through Danube stepped on Bazardzhik. During 8-hour battle to Suvorov's troops which went in vanguard was necessary to reflect several attacks of Turks. Russians, having constructed in battallion carets and having huntsmen in a loose system, successfully counterattacked and managed to occupy enemy artillery. The army Abdul Cutting torch was put to flight, having opened thereby a way to Shumla where there was a rate of the Supreme vizier. This defeat forced Turkey to sign in July with Russia Kyuchuk-the Kaynardzhiysky world.
In August, 1774 Suvorov was directed to suppression of the Pugachev's rebellion, but risen were broken by government troops before its arrival. Suvorov's participation was expressed in escort of Yemelyan Pugachyov seized and imprisoned in an iron cage to the city of Simbirsk. From there that was brought to Moscow and there is executed.
In 1776-1779 the general lieutenant Suvorov ordered the Russian troops in the Crimea and in Kuban, having provided defense of coast of the Crimean peninsula on a case of disembarkation of the Turkish landing. Directed resettlement of orthodox Greeks and Armenians from there. Personally made for accession of the Crimean khanate to Russia much. The next two years was in the city of Astrakhan, preparing a cancelled military campaign to Persia there.
Then Suvorov appeared in the North Caucasus. In 1782-1784 ordered the separate Kuban case and directed construction of the Kuban boundary strengthened line. Brought the Nogai Tatars wandering in steppes to the south of Don into humility of Russia, having used at the same time military force. Thanks to Suvorov's works the southern frontier became safer and strengthened.
In 1786 Alexander Vasilyevich Suvorov is made in the general-anshefy. He is appointed consistently the commander Vladimirskaya, the St. Petersburg and Kremenchuk divisions. At the head of the last he met the beginning of the Russian-Turkish war of 1787-1791 — the second Ekaterina's Turkish. In this war also there ascended the star of Suvorov of a military leader.
General-anshef Suvorov was appointed the head of defense of the Kherson-Kinburnsky area (from the river the Southern Bug to the Recop) to whom Turks threatened from the sea and from the fortress, close through the estuary, Ochakov. On October 1, 1787 the numerous sultan fleet landed a strong landing which at once began to become stronger lines of entrenchments on the Kinburnsky spit. Suvorov attacked Turks on approaches to Kinburnsky fortress and destroyed a landing, personally participating in fight. Defeat of the Ottomans who landed on a tongue of sand was full, only the little managed to reach the ships.
The fortress siege Ochakov in 1788 ended for Suvorov with the conflict with the lightest prince G. A. Potyomkin, the omnipotent favourite of the empress Catherine II Velikaya. Suvorov was a supporter of the fastest storm of fortress as during a prolonged siege the Russian troops suffered heavy losses from diseases. Next year the general-anshef ordered a division in army of the prince Repnin.
1789 presented to Alexander Vasilyevich Suvorov two brilliant victories — at Fokshan and at the river Rymnik. The first battle took place on July 21. Having received data on the movement of 30-thousand Turkish troops under command Othman pasha, Suvorov at the head of 7-thousand group hurried to the aid of the Austrian allied case standing in Adzhuda. Russians and the Austrians under the general command the general-anshefa took the offensive, crushed enemy vanguard and attacked the strengthened field positions of Turks, having beaten out them from there after 10-hour battle. Defeat of troops Othman pasha was full — they escaped only.
Battle on the river Rymnik, Seret's inflow (in Romania), happened on September 11. The army of the Grand Visier Yusuf pasha numbering over 100 thousand people at 80 tools took the offensive to the Austrian case of prince Koburga (Koburgsky) located at Fokshan and consisting of only 18 thousand people at 43 tools. Having learned about it, Suvorov at the head of the 7-thousand group acted from at night - under Byrlad, having made transition to 100 kilometers in 2,5 days. The Russian case arrived to Fokshanam before the Turkish army.
Having headed the Russian-Austrian troops, Suvorov found out that Turks stopped in four strengthened camps: at Tyrgu-Kukuli (about 15 thousand vanguard troops), in the wood Kryngu-Meylor (about 40 thousand people), at Martineshti (about 45 thousand people) and behind the river Rymnik at the village Odaya. The commander decided to crush army of the Grand Visier in parts. At dawn on September 11 allies, having made a night 14-kilometer battle march, suddenly attacked Tyrgu-Kukuli's camp and seized it. After that they went to an attack of camp in the wood Kryngu-Meylor.
Othman pasha set on attacking his positions a many thousands cavalry, but all its attempts were reflected by gun volleys from a caret. The camp of the opponent in the wood was taken by storm. Pursuing the running opponent, Suvorov troops straight off occupied the Turkish strengthened camp at Martineshti, and next day and the last, behind the river Rymnik. Also to the most Grand Visier Othman pasha was necessary to escape.
Losses of the Turkish army in battle made 15-20 thousand people, including 10 thousand the killed, all artillery and a huge wagon train. Battle at the river Rymnik became history of military art as an outstanding model of difficult maneuvering of troops in the battlefield for the purpose of defeat of considerably superior forces of the enemy in parts. The victory was reached, speaking to Suvorov language, "not number, but ability".
For a victory on the river Rymnik the general-anshef A.V. Suvorov received the highest award of the Russian Empire of a military leader — an award of the Saint great martyr and pobedonosets Georgy of the 1st degree and an honourable title of count of Rymniksky. From the Austrian emperor the title of count of the Sacred Roman Empire became an award for a victory. The Rymniksky victory is remarkable also the fact that since then for Suvorov the glory of the victorious Russian commander finally became stronger.
Storm of the strongest Turkish fortress Izmail became on December 11, 1790 original top of glory of a military leader of Alexander Vasilyevich Suvorov. This stronghold Ottoman Ports on Danube coast was under construction the French and German fortifikator as army fortress — "a horde travel about" (it was calculated on placement of the whole army) and was considered as unapproachable. It represented the wrong triangle adjoining to the river bank. Extent of the earth shaft which is partially dressed in a stone made more than 6 kilometers, height — from 6 to 8 meters, with 7 earth and stone bastions. Width of a serf ditch made 12 meters, depth — 6-10 meters. In a number of places the ditch was filled with water to 2 meters. In fortress was available many stone constructions adapted for conducting defense.
The Izmail garrison totaled 35 thousand people at 265 tools. One of the most experienced Turkish military leaders Aydos Mehmet pasha was a commandant of Izmail. Under walls of fortress stood the Turkish Danube military flotilla is numerous. The Russian troops (31 thousand people and over 500 field tools) blocked Izmail and in December, 1790 tried to take it unsuccessfully twice.
The general-anshef Suvorov who arrived under Izmail, having carried out reconnaissance, made the decision to take powerful enemy fortress "the accelerated attack". In the steppe the ditch was dug and the shaft as Izmail is filled. Training of troops was conducted is reserved from Turks at night. 70 assault ladders and 3 thousand fascines were prepared.
On a Suvorov plan the attack of Izmail fortress was conducted by 9 assault columns, three of which were landed on vessels of a rowing flotilla to the city through Danube from the island Chatal. From the land fortress was attacked by two groups of troops under command of general lieutenants of P.S.
Potyomkina and A.N. Samoylova and column of the major general M. I. Golenishchev-Kutuzov. Each column had the reserve. The general reserve was made by a cavalry numbering 2,5 thousand people. To avoid bloodshed, the Russian commander directed Aydos Mehmet pasha the letter with the requirement to hand over fortress what that answered with resolute refusal.
On December 10 the Russian field and ship artillery made bombing of fortress. Next day at 3 o'clock in the morning assault columns began to move forward on initial positions, and at 5 hours 30 minutes mornings they went to an attack. Sudden storm did not turn out, and attackers were met by strong artillery and gun fire from a rampart. Turks made a sortie. Especially difficult then it was necessary to the Don Cossacks who were armed with the shortened peaks.
Having seized a fortification, the Russian troops entered hand-to-hand fight for the city on its flaring streets on which, sweeping away all on the way, thousand herds of horses rushed. To four o'clock in the afternoon Izmail fell. Turks lost 26 thousand the killed and 9 thousand wounded among whom the majority appeared with severe wounds. The Russian losses made 1815 killed and 2445 wounded. Losses among officers were especially big — commanders went ahead of assault columns. Winners captured 265 mainly large-caliber tools, 42 river crafts, 345 banners and bunchuk.
On losses of warring parties at storm of Izmail this fight has not equal in world military history. Capture of Izmail fortress is recognized as a feat of Alexander Vasilyevich Suvorov of a military leader, but he did not receive a field marshal's baton but only a rank of the lieutenant colonel of the Preobrazhensky Regiment for it (a colonel's Preobrazhenskiy rank the empress Catherine II Velikaya carried). Difficult relations between Suvorov and the lightest prince Potyomkin-Tavrichesky were the reason for that.
In 1791 the general-anshef Suvorov ordered the Russian troops in Finland, directing building of border strengthenings on a war case with Sweden. In 1792-1794 — troops in the south of Russia, dealing with issues of strengthening of frontier again.
The commander already then expected inevitability of the military conflict of the Russian Empire with revolutionary France. From Tulchin Suvorov went to Poland where there were military operations during the next Polish mutiny. In May, 1794 Suvorov is sent to Podoliya for preparation for the second Polish campaign. In the first half of August it is enlisted in structure of army the general-anshefa N. V. Repnina with 4,5-thousand group entered on the territory captured by revolt. The number of Suvorov troops after accession of other groups increased up to 11 thousand soldiers. In 6 days Suvorov's case won 4 victories: 3 on September (14) at the town of Divin; next day at Kobrin the Cossack vanguard of Suvorov broke to the 400th cavalry of the major Rushchich. 6 on September (17) at Krupchitsa's monastery near Kobrina Suvorov attacked Karol Serakovsky's division (the number of 5 thousand at 26 tools) and rejected it to Brest. 8 on September (19) again battled against Serakovsky's troops (8 thousand. at 14 tools) at Brest and completely crushed them.
On October 10 the head risen Kosciusko was captivated by group of Ferzen which then joined Suvorov owing to what the number of troops of the last increased up to 17 thousand soldiers. These troops moved to Warsaw. Towards to Suvorov's troops the group of the general Mayen consisting of 5 560 soldiers (including 1 103 cavalries) and 9 tools was directed. At 5 o'clock in the morning 15 on October (26) at Kobylke the fight which was continuing more than 5 hours and ended with defeat of the Polish troops, the part from which receded to Prague, the suburb of Warsaw on the right side of Vistula, was started.
Till October 21 (on November 1) Suvorov's troops were engaged on the approach to Warsaw in training of soldiers, preparation of fascines, ladders and wattle fences for overcoming of strengthenings. On October 23 (on November 3) Suvorov's troops (to 25 thousand soldiers at 86 tools) approached Prague, suburb of Warsaw, and began a shelling of the city and its walls. Next day, approximately at 5 o'clock in the morning, seven columns went to an attack dilapidated a gun-fire of the strengthenings defended by garrison and the armed city rebels (20 — 30 thousand) at 106 tools. The Russian columns under fire rushed into Prague from the different parties. Among defenders of Prague panic began, and to 9 o'clock in the morning on October 24 (on November 4) the Polish troops capitulated.
Was killed in battle according to different data from 10 to 13 thousand to 20 thousand Poles and it is a little more taken prisoner, from the Russian side according to an official report 580 soldiers are killed and 960 are wounded. The Russian general von Klugen so remembered last fight in Prague: Shot at us from windows of houses and from roofs, and our soldiers, breaking into the houses, destroyed all who came across to them <…> Exasperation and thirst of revenge reached the highest degree <…> officers were unable not to stop bloodshed any more <…> At the bridge slaughter came again.
Our soldiers shot at crowds, without sorting anybody — and shrill shout of women, cries of children directed horror at soul. Fairly say that the shed human blood excites an intoxication sort. The hardened our soldiers in each living being saw the blighter of ours during revolt in Warsaw. "There is no parton to anybody!" — our soldiers shouted and destroyed all, without distinguishing either years or a floor …
Sketch (comical) Suvorov's heads, made from nature in 1795 the schedule Jan Norblin.
Suvorov accepted deputies from Warsaw directly in the battlefield, among a set of corpses, defiantly warning Poles about consequences of further resistance. Events in Prague both the subsequent Polish and French propaganda formed Suvorov's image in the opinion of West Europeans as cruel military leader. Nevertheless demonstrative actions of Suvorov had effect and on October 29 (on November 9) on the bank of Vistula the magistrate brought Suvorova bread salt and city keys which symbolized capitulation of Warsaw. On a request of the king Stanislav to release one Polish officer, Suvorov released 500 captured officers, still before on houses 6 thousand Polish rebels were released. The magistrate on behalf of residents of Warsaw presented to Suvorov a gold snuffbox with diamonds and the inscription "Warsaw — to the Deliverer".
After the end of battle the general-anshef Suvorov sent the empress Catherine II the letter consisting of three words: "Hurrah! our Warsaw!" also received the answer "Hurrah! the Field marshal Suvorov!". Thus, for capture of Prague Suvorov was awarded the highest military rank of the field marshal, and also granted by a manor in 7 thousand souls in the Kobrin povet, received Prussian awards of the Black eagle, Red eagle and other awards. After capitulation of Warsaw and amnesty of army of insurgents declared by Suvorov across all Poland within a week laid down arms.
At the beginning of 1795 Suvorov was appointed the commander of all Russian troops in Poland, then the commander-in-chief of the 80-thousand army located in Bratslavskaya, Voznesenskaya, the Kharkiv and Ekaterinoslavsky provinces with headquarters in Tulchin. He wrote to this period "Science to win" — an outstanding monument to the Russian military thought.
In 1795-1796 the general field marshal A.V. Suvorov ordered troops in Ukraine, keeping headquarters in Tulchin. Exactly here by preparation of field troops the well-known Suvorov through attacks blowing the mind of contemporaries from among people of military, especially foreigners were entered into the program of front exercises.
In the south of Russia Suvorov created "Science to win" — an outstanding monument to the Russian military thought. In it he wrote: "Three military arts. The first — an eye estimation: as in camp to become as itt, where to attack, drive and beat.
The second — speed …
The enemy us does not hope, considers us for hundred versts and prick from far away, in two and three sta more. Suddenly we on it suddenly. The head will begin to spin at it. Attack with what came, than god sent! A cavalry, begin! Ruby, drive, prick, otrezyvay, do not miss!
Hurrah! Wonders are worked by Brothers! The third — an impact. The leg supports a leg, the hand usilyat a hand. In firing many people perish. The enemy has same hands and the Russian bayonet is not known …" With Paul I's accession Suvorov opposed introduction of Prussian orders alien to the Russian army that caused the hostile relation to it of the emperor and the yard. On February 8, 1797 the glorified commander was dismissed and sent in the manor to Konchanskoye.
The reference when the general field marshal was under the supervision of local police, continued about two years. In 1798 the Russian Empire entered the second anti-French coalition (Great Britain, Austria, Turkey, the Kingdom of both Sicily) At insistance of allies and first of all the Vienna yard the emperor Paul I was forced to appoint Suvorov the commander-in-chief of allied Russian-Austrian army in Northern Italy. Before departure to Europe the sovereign awarded the disgraced commander with the Russian Tradition of the The Knights Hospitaller of the Big Cross (Order of Malta). Passable through Mitava, Suvorov was presented to the French king-exile Louis XVIII.
In the Italian campaign of 1799 Suvorov troops won over French victories in battles on the river Adda, the Trebbia River and at the city of Novi. Three French armies headed by the glorified generals Moro, McDonald and Joubert were crushed. Suvorov in each of these battles showed full superiority in military art, promptly attacking the enemy from march by smaller forces. The cities of Milan and Turin were freed. Allies seized fortresses Brescia and Bergamo. In a short space of time Northern Italy (for which possession the Austrian empire applied) was freed from the French troops. The emperor Paul I granted Suvorov a title of the prince Italiysky.
After that the Russian commander planned a campaign to France, for its capital of Paris. However it was offered to it, having left allied Austrian troops in Italy, to go to Switzerland (occupied by French) for connection with the Russian case of the general A.M. Rimsky-Korsakov. The plan of allied powers to concentrate the Russian cases in Switzerland for the subsequent their invasion into France from the southeast became an occasion for this purpose.
In 1799 the well-known Suvorov Swiss campaign of 1799 in military history began. The Russian troops which Austrian allies, contrary to promises, did not provide with mules had to break across the Swiss territory with continuous fights through the French barriers. The way went along mountain roads, through snow-covered passes in the conditions of the Alpine highlands. It was necessary to send all weights, troops lost almost all horses. Fights for Saint Gothard, Chyortov Bridge, Paniks and many other points are recognized as examples of heroism and fearlessness of Suvorov soldiers whom the commander called "wonderful athletes".
Having overcome the Alpine heights, the Russian troops with considerable losses broke through Switzerland. All French troops which got in the way of Suvorov Military School students were broken. However to connect to the north of the Swiss Alps to Suvorov there was nobody — the case of the general Rimsky-Korsakov was crushed by French, and the Austrians receded. At this time the commander received the imperial decree to return with troops to Russia.
The highest military rank of the generalissimo of all Russian troops became an award to the great Russian commander for the Italian and Swiss campaigns. By then the gentleman of all Russian awards of the highest degrees had also a rank of the Austrian general field marshal.
In St. Petersburg the generalissimo Suvorov was waited by new disgrace. At first in way he was reprimanded from the emperor Paul I for the fact that he in a campaign had at himself the duty general that was not necessary to it under the charter. Then the seriously ill patient of the commander was warned about unwillingness of the sovereign to meet it. And in completion of all took away all aide-de-camps from him. All this affected Suvorov's health, and he died.
The generalissimo Alexander Vasilyevich Suvorov, the count Rymniksky, the prince Italiysky was buried in Alexander Nevsky Lavra. On a tombstone words of the poet Derzhavin were cut — "Suvorov lies here".
Suvorov's grave in Alexander Nevsky Lavra
Suvorov became military history as the ingenious commander. It did not lose any battle, and all of them were won at a superiority in strength of the enemy. The generalissimo A.V. Suvorov-Rymniksky became one of founders of the Russian military art, having created own military school with progressive system of training and education of troops. He resolutely rejected the principles of cordon strategy and linear tactics, developed and applied more perfect forms and ways of conducting armed struggle which much more outstripped its era in practice of a military leader. Suvorov brought up a group of the Russian commanders and military leaders among whom there were M. I. Golenishchev-Kutuzov and P. I. Bagration.
During the Great Patriotic War, in 1942, in the USSR the Order of Suvorov of three degrees was founded, and in 1943 Suvorov Military Schools are created. To this day the generalissimo Alexander Vasilyevich Suvorov — one of the most beloved national heroes of the Russian people.