Memory of the nation: the integral, finished shape to give to each large historical person. Memory as if "models", creates, molds the heroes. Sometimes it is possible to speak about such "sculpture" only conditionally: it exists as certain "national feeling", consisting of the different facts, estimates, emotions, exists as the culture axiom which is not needing proofs and most often not fixed in a type of an accurate formula. It nevertheless exists and to forget, it is impossible to delete it from history. It does not need to be proved once again, history does not forgive to the descendants the fact that it is forgotten that remains in the shadow for many years. Flight of time forces to return back, peer, ponder, to reflect over what suddenly disappeared from cultural heritage of all nation. Anyway, earlier, or later, we are forced to come back, again to restore everything. Everything that is already almost destroyed and restorations is not subject. Though events can be restored if there is a firm purpose. Therefore my purpose to restore spiritually that eyewitnesses store in the memory what they remember at a leisure and especially I want that we did not lose sight of the most expensive to spiritual development of people, - literature. The Belarusian literature developed in close interrelation with literature of the Slavic people. Huge impact on creativity was exerted by a literary heritage of the Russian and Ukrainian people which is already substantially covered in special monographs. However the Belarusian-Polish literary interaction is investigated still very much and very few.
The Belarusian and Polish people are connected among themselves by the general historical life. It is known that in the past there were between them many misunderstanding. The famous Polish playwright Leon Kruchkovsky who shortly before death stayed in Belarus, wrote in the article "Over Narach": "Polish which here, over Svityazyyu, found the best poems and fine images in Tugonovichakh was on this earth at the same time language of class and national oppression" But the fault for misunderstanding lays down not on a people at large, and on magnatsky childbirth Rodzivilov and Vishnevky, etc.
The Belarusian-Polish literary interrelations have the long traditions rich with the actual material. They arose in the Middle Ages when the territory. Belarus was a part of the Polish-Lithuanian state. Some Polish authors then visited Belarus, got acquainted with life of its people. So, in 1578 to Rodzivilam there came Jan Kanovsky. From Belarus there were natives of many medieval Polish writers (Andrzej Volen, Krishtafor Daragostaysky). Some historians of these times returned to studying of last Belarusian people ("The chronicle Polish, Lithuanian, Zmudz and all Russia" Mateja Striykovskogo, 1582).
In the XVII-XVIII station the polonization of Belarus renewed. Poets who lived at manors spent the talents for panegyrics and religious anthems (Albrakh Karmanosky and Daniel Neborovsky at court Rodzivilov in Nesvezhe). Belarus was the homeland of many outstanding Polish writers of the XVIII St. Among them it is necessary to call the aide-de-camp Kostyushki Yulyan Nemtsevich (1757 - 1841) who was born in Skopakh, near Brest. From a family of a poor shlyakhtich in Pinshchina there was a teacher of poetry and rhetoric of Vilensky academy Adam Narushevich (1733 – 1796). Life and creative activity of one from originators Polish sentimentalism of Frantishk Karpinsky is connected with Grodenshchina (1741 – 1825).
But rather Belarusian-Polish communications quickened in the 19th century when the Belarusian nation and the Belarusian national literature when together with romanticism in Poland "the nationality cult" appeared began to be formed, interest in the Belarusian people appeared.
In the 19th century the Belarusian literature experienced the rebirth. The help was rendered by the Polish literature which gave an impetus for development. Representatives of new Belarusian literature: V. Dunina – Martsinkevich, Ya. Chechet, Ya. Luchina, Gurinovich, Varilu-Dorevsky, Korotynsky – in a bigger or smaller measure it is possible to call the Belarusian-Polish writers because everyone in the creativity used Polish.
Some questions of interrelation of the Belarusian and Polish literature from the second half of XIX are already mentioned in articles and partially in monographs (S. Aleksandrovsky, V. Borisenko, I. Bas, V. Popova, T. Kiselyov, M. Panchenko, O. Loyko, M. Konoplitsky, M. Olekhnovich and dr) researchers. In 1963 there were from the press of research of Loyki and Perkin "Belarusian-Polish literary interrelations in XIX in" (the report at the International congress of Slavists), Larchenki "Slavic supolnasts" where some phenomena of the Belarusian-Polish literary interaction last century are considered. But is made not enough. There are no special researches how literature of the Polish people influenced on formation of an art method and views of the Belarusian writers of the XIX century.
It should be noted that during a cult of personality studying of interrelations between the Belarusian and Polish literatures it was often ignored. These communications were held back due to various reasons political character. Almost in all monographs it was said that the Belarusian literature was created only under the influence of the Russian literature. For example, if to take S. Moykhrovich, V. Dunin-Martsinkevich's monograph. Here what he writes: "Not zabudzy pryty аснаýное that ýплывала on the naradzheena of i razvizze new belarukay litaratury z a samaga to an ear of XIX stagodzya: a geta, on-pershaye, - vysoki ýзровень ruskay natsyyanalnay cultures navogul i klasichnay litaratury ý asablivastsi, on - another, arganichna неад΄емны hell litaratury ýплыý vysshay national tvorchastsi; on-tretsyae, цiкаýнасць peradavy, pyckix of navukova-etnagrafichny i geagrafichnykh выданняý i часопiсаý yes belaruskaga of the people, Iago arkhealogii, gistoryi, mova, culture of i mastatskay tvorchastsi: nareshets, atyprygonnitskiya idei дзекабрыстаý, yakiya znamenavali Saba the new stages ý дохоýным zhyzzi Pacii, meli a vyklyuchna vyaliki ýплыý on razvizze gramadskay dumki at Belarusi".
All this is correct. But nevertheless, nearby there was also advanced Polish classical literature; interest in the Belarusian people and its folklore was shown also by the Polish publishing houses. Not to tell about it is means to distort historical reality. Ignoring of influence of the Polish literature led to the fact that heritage of such writers as V. Dunin-Martinkevich, Ya. Chechet, Ya. Luchina, A. Gurinovich, were considered without their works in Polish.
In studying of the Belarusian-Polish literary interrelations of the XIX Art. there are many specific difficulties. For example, finally it is not known whom to read out from writers Belarusian and whom – Polish. Sometimes those authors who were only born in Belarus are called Belarusian or lived here. Therefore to ignore that masterpieces of the Polish authors were created at us it is impossible, the Belarusian people were heroes of work, in most cases.
And one more circumstance complicates our knowledge of the Belarusian-Polish literary relationship of the XIX century. There are no corresponding bibliographic indexes. And to make it, informative with fixed assets of numerous archives, including foreign; to investigate all Polish literature of the XIX century not in power to several people.
Many people were engaged in a question of the Polish writers living in Belarus, in particular on the Brest region not so already. Professor of BGPI V.A. Kolesnik tried to make (in my opinion) digression on our district and somewhat to establish something. And here, Kolesnik mentions a name of the famous Polish writer Maria Rodzevich in the book of "Zorna спеý".
"Mayontak Grushava, native gnyazdo i syaliba Radzevich. Mizh inshym knowing Leapold of Radzevicha that аýтар "Zbyantezhanny Caýki", быý, en прызнаýся, dalekim the brother-in-law, but not tolki adnafamiltsam getay papulyarnay davayennay ramanistki "Грыýды", "Summer of lyasny people", "Devaytsisa".
Pismennitsa ýмела zacharavats ramantychnay beskaryslivastsyu, to summer-tsennay vysakarodnastsyu, hots satsyyalnyya pazitsii is frequent byli ý yae Neva-raznyya, navat staramodnyya, кансерватыýныя. Ledz not to times z to it pra of a geta edge pisala Wanda of Васiлеýская, and kartsiny zusim rodnyya. At Vasileuskay kipits a baratsba, палешукоý suprats асаднiкаý, and ý Radzevich a mustache of tsyagnetsets old patryarkhalny idyliya. Rakhmanyya zababonnyya muzhyki shlyakhetna i sir dzedzin misiyaner. Han idze on klich продкаý, idze tsyvilizavats edge of i vyartats former glory svaygo the people. Nevyadoma tolki hell kago Yana chula takiya lyagenda.
To Syalyana myastsovyya ýспамiнаюць yae is kind: abykhodlivaya was z lyudzmi, dapamagat. At kago a byada tsi a patreba. Турыстаý заýседы chastavat ý to Grushava to bread i malaky, lyubila gartsavats to tops on kani, stryglasya a stalemate "Pole" of i nasila muzhchynskiya i boats galife. Mustache of a get of intrygavala moladz. Vidats, litaraturnyya zarobki dazvalyali pismennikam ramantychna adnosizza yes pile gapadarki i navakolny lyudzy. Zreshta, here on the right not ý pennies, and ý of a haraktara of a chalavek. Yana could not byts inshay, navat kali the mayentka tsi chalk litaraturnykh заробкаý would sweep. Would be zakhoplivym, beskaryslivym, to a krykh to dukhavaty fantazbra. Geta of ýзнятасць over praktychnymi spravami i acharavat maladyya souls".
Here one more researcher of the Polish-Belarusian literary relationship A. Maldis. In the book "Tvorchaye pabratsimstva" in passing mentions a name of Maria Rodzevich only in one offer: "Mariya Kanaplitskaya of a gastsyaval of ý mayentka Grushava la Pinsca ý Polish ramantystki Maryi Radzevich". Here and all material which our Belarusian researchers on such person as Maria Rodzevich – the Polish writer - the novelist whose life is connected with a small corner to Polesia and, probably, this period in Rodzevich's life can present.
Now 60 years later, interest in the personality Maria Rodzevich increased, as in Kobrin district, and beresteysky lands. Many publications were published in local and regional newspapers. The village of Grushevo began to be of particular historical interest. This material is presented in article as appendices (the appendix 1 – 8) – newspaper publications, excerpts from books.
It is enough to tell that at the beginning of the 20th century in the territory of the modern Brest region there were about 1500 park objects (manors, folvarok), including in the territory of Kobrin district – 194. Now remained (at the beginning of the 21st century) only 26 which are in dilapidated state. Grushevsky park – a manor Rodzevich is in a deplorable state too.
The main part of article is the translation from Polish (the source is specified in literature) and memoirs of locals according to which stories Maria Rodzevich's image appears as Polish writer and landowner. Maria Rodzivichovna (1864 - 1944) is the Polish writer and a novellistka. Pseudonym of Zmogaz (besides still Maro, Verykho). Was born on February 2, 1864 (the date 1863 accepted earlier did not find confirmation in documents) in the town Pinyuga of the Grodno province of the Volkovysky povet. Came from a family of land owners. Was Heinrich (Henrikh) and Amelia Kuzhenitskaya's daughter who for the help risen (stored the weapon), were banished to Siberia. Mother who was condemned before Maria's families allowed to bring up the child till 2 months, as an exception, it was succeeded to send her to the settlement own subwater. The manor them was confiscated (there is other version, Rodzvichovna's mother went to Siberia voluntarily for the husband).
Children Rodzevichey – more than 10 years Tselene (a surname after marriage of Mladzyanovsk), 10-year-old Heinrich and Gabriel (died in the childhood when parents were in exile) and Maria – was given for guardianship of relatives. Maria at the beginning was brought up at the grandfather and Kurtsenitsky' grandmother in a mayontka Zamoshe about Ivanovo-Polesia, later – after death of the grandfather – is given to the far relative, the friend mother Carolina Skirmutova in Kortsenov in Pinshchina.
In 1871, after amnesty of the parents who came back from Siberia they settle in Warsaw where fall into very difficult financial position. The father works as the managing director of masons (the stone building). The salary makes 15 rubles a month. Mother at tobacco factory. After a while the distant relative To. Puslowske made the father the owner of the real estate that somewhat improved financial position of a family. The real improvement took place only in 1877 when Rodzivichovna's father inherited after the childless brother Theodor (Teodorze), Grushevo's manor in the Korinsky povet (about Antopol) to Polesia. In Grushevo of the earth there were 1 533 hectares – from them 1/3 part of an arable land, the second part made the woods, other – meadows and sloping.
During stay in Warsaw Rodzivichovna began to edify privately at Kuchinskaya. As welfare of a family grew, at the end of 1876 it began to study in Yazlovtsa at conventuals. Here was till winter vacation. In 1879 finished study in the 6th class.
During stay in Yazlovtsa the great influence was exerted by religion and the patriotic atmosphere of the monastery in which girls were brought up, first of all as future wives and mothers. The great influence was exerted on Rodzivichovna by the mother superior Martselina Dorovsk and the unknown by the name of the sister Gertrude who tried to write verses, dramaturgic works and novels: during student's occupations in Yazlovtsa Maria began to write. In correspondence with sisters of the monastery the poem "Lotus" (most likely it is later "Color of a lotus" is called), work which was not approved by the mother superior of Darovsk is remembered. Her thoughts of an informative and educational role of literature exerted a great influence on Rodzivichovna's views.
In 1881 Rodzivichovna's father dies. Maria gradually takes in hand Grushevo's manor, and in 1887 becomes formal the hostess of a manor which has many debts made by the father and the uncle besides the brother and the sister should have rallied.
Sawn-off shotguns shortly hair (on permission of mother), having put on boots with long tops, a skirt below knees, a men's jacket, Rodzivichovna began to operate Pear which, however, did not make a lot of profit, and demanded constantly money. The relation of the Polish landowner with local peasants were various. In journal interview of Rodzivichovn called them patriarchal. Paid also attention to that in a manor it appeared to peasants medical care. Extended the general culture. However affairs not always looked so ideally if to consider that fact that in 1890. The Warsaw press reported that Rodzivichovna beat the shepherd from Antopol and this case was considered in court. Business was stopped after when Maria paid to the claimant 5 rubles gold.
In December, 1900 men revenged the landowner, setting fire to structures of one of folvarok (the barn with everything burned down we contain, a thresher and a shed, in it there were 50 heads of cattle). However in 1937, on anniversaries of 50 years' possession Pear, peasants presented to Rodzivichovna an album with such dedication: "The fair Lady and Mother for 50 years of joint work", bought bells for her churchlet (kaplitsa) and free of charge brought bricks, to the built Catholic church in Antopole".
Rodzivichovna debuts in literature in 1882, having published under Maro's pseudonym two short stories "Scale of Feelings", "From the Reporter's Notebook" (both had subtitles in French) in 3 and 4 issues of the Warsaw magazine "Dzieniho Arogsowedo". In 1884 under the same pseudonym published in "Suzicie" the story "Yazon Bobrovsy", and one year later, the story "Farsa pany". But the true popularity to Rodzivichovna came after a victory in a literary competition of the Swit magazine, the novel "Terrible Grandfather" (1886) which was published in 1887 on pages Lviv "Dzienika Rolskido", and in book publishing house in Warsaw. This popularity was strengthened and maintained by another victory of Rodzivichovna in a competition of novels, this time organized "the Chiming clock Warsaw" (1888). Received the II place, the first is awarded to nobody. The novel "Divaytis" is published on the pages "Chiming Clock Warsaw". In 1889 the novel appears in book publishing house (this novel was translated into 9 European languages - 1890-91) . "Dewatis" it was very well accepted by modern literary criticism, it was noticed by all large magazines, reviewers who often were writers (this is by the way Maria Konoplitska, Waveria Marrend-Morzkowska). They saw talent of the author in this novel, praised her patriotic and public tendencies, but at the same time criticized art simplicity of work. This popularity of Rodzivichovna was strengthened by her further novels published one after another both in the Kingdom Polish, and in Golition. These are novels as: "Miesdzu ustanu a brzegim pucharu ("Zycie" of 1888), "Pozare i zgloszea" ("The fires and the ashes", a novel subtitle against January revolt). This novel was published in Golition under the pseudonym Zmogas, Lviv, 1888, in the Kingdom – in 1893, the first Warsaw edition appeared only in 1907 after censorship cancellation.
"Kwiaf lotosu" ("Color of a lotus, Warsaw, 1889), "Gray crash" Lviv, 1890 Mr. of Golition); in 1890 there were 2 collections of short stories (Warsaw), and also novels "Blue" (Warsaw), "Hrynda" (Grivd) ("Bluszez", vy.) in this publishing house separately in Warsaw in 1891) "Ona" (Warsaw). In total till 1900 20 novels (new, apart from the following translated into other languages), and also 4 volumes of stories of Rodzivichovna, that is, on 2 books were published every year in the Kingdom and Golition. The success of these books among broad masses of the population was solved more by patriotic tendencies (a big role played known already to readers of pozytywisfuczne here), a fight subject for the Polish earth in hands of Poles; and also the subject about return of "marrofraunedo zyna" to fatherland), and also, in comparison with Elisa Ozheshko and Boleslav Prus's novel, is simplified their structure. From its art elements essential were artistic images close to heroes of fables and myths, and also a role of love and public plans which it opened in own way to shlyakhetsko-pomeshchitsky conservatism. For readers in Rodzichovna's novels emergence in her works of approval of the traditional values concerning, mainly, a role of a family and religion in life of the people mattered. Retsenzista however accepted her such creativity more and more critically.
When in 1890 one of the most melodramaic works of Rodzivichovna the novel "Ona" appeared, only Prus partially became in "Kronibad" on protection of the writer, recognized it "remarkable abilities" and "high ideas". Prus in too time accused the Polish intellectuals for its such assessment of a role of the writer, disregarding the fact that a lack of images and destruction of talents "too accelerated work". To Rodzivichovna he wished to strengthen work on the self-education and work on manuscripts of novels. However 1890 the literary genre of Rodzivichovna and an assessment of its works as literatures minor, were already predetermined. Here it is necessary to consider some factors: the success of "Divaytis" convinced Rodzivichovna that literary creativity is result of enthusiasm, but not a daily hard work. In turn it – at the constant requirement of publishing houses to give new novels and to issue advance payment again on new – forced it to find old student's works or quicker to write new. The criticism became more and more more aggressive, especially critiques of mladopolyak. And the criticism exerted such impact that Rodzivichovna ceased to reckon with it. Especially it was touched by reproach is that "Divaytis" plagiarism (is written off). In "Prowde" it was claimed that "Divaytis" is imitation of the novel Urzule Zoge Manteffel "Mark Albneht". the indignant Rodzivichovna sent a denial, in the 15th number "Praudu" declaring that she does not know this novel at all. However charge of plagiarism returns it repeatedly to the article Cezaqnedo Uelienfu. The "Talent on a market" published the same year in Prawde", and also - during World War I and the intermilitary period (1920 – 39) and during World War II – to the statement of Pauszer Klonoukif.
The writer more and more famous to readers the end of the 19th century, before the first world war, led generally to Grushevo, in society 1 or 2 of distant relatives, at the same time her girlfriends and trustees: Skirmuntovna's Yadvig and Helenu Welcherfow. Only in the winter for 2-3 months Rodzivichovna left, mainly, to Warsaw. Made also several entertaining trips abroad: to Rome (for 500 rubles which she received as an award for "Divaytis"), 2 – 3 times (it is definitely not known) visited the South of France (Revyer), at least, once was in Munich, from January to April, 1903-1904 in Sweden and Norway.
Rodzivichovna's life was devoted to housekeeping in Grushevo. According to plausible messages of the Warsaw press, the writer put the income from literary work in this economy. Besides, these years wrote new novels. In the last novels which are especially written in 1902 - 1906 (it is Mafeck" 1903, "Heather" 1903, "Szadaru" (Warsaw, 1905, "Uoan VIII" 1906, "Ragnarok" (W., 1906) known and earlier in creativity anti-urbanism acts more and more clearly, the criticism of petty-bourgeois lie and false Christianity, and also a sketch of poverty of workers appears. These last works are connected closely with impressions which were made on it in Revyere by events of 1905, as well as earlier wave of public heat of life. Not only the subject specified earlier, but also and public work, active after 1905, was reaction to these public events.
On a sample, the circles operating in the Kingdom uniting noblewomen in 1919 Mr. of Rodzivichovna founds secret women's society "Uniya" (Union) which, however, entered the called circle uniting noblewomen soon. During one of winter visits of Warsaw Rodzivichovna headed economic department of this society. The purpose of this society consisted in patriotic education of the village during national solidarity. Rodzivichovna made also a lot of things on the organization in Warsaw of grocery store and shop selling national products.
In the territory of Kobrin district it did a lot of things on providing circles with the Polish textbooks. Besides it began to edit (or at least used the surname) bodies of the integrated fellow countrymen, namely: the Polki pan magazine appearing in 1907 and the magazine of noblewomen appearing in 1908 - 1915. As a rule, it were organized bulletins of noblewomen, but at them were specially published every two weeks of the appendix intended for hostesses, especially rural. In the appendix there were councils for housekeeping, popular scientific articles, prosaic and poetic works under the motto "good luck and fatherland". In 1911 this circle of the integrated compatriots organized anniversary devoted 25 – to summer creativity of Rodzivichovna. Anniversary solemnly took place in Warsaw where there were many guests where members of this organization acted, reading the anniversary letter of Heinrich Senkevich who glorified patriotic and public merits of Rodzivichovna became one of numbers of the program.
The beginning of World War I found Rodzivichovna in Warsaw. Here she within work of a circle of noblewomen participated in the organization, and then in work of military hospital (at one time was an intendantka), and also committee of a sanitary column which became corner committee of the Polish Red Cross. Helped also with the organization of cheap kitchen for the intellectuals and the organization of the help to students. In 1915 for some time returned to Grushevo where surrounded with care of refugees whom tried to detain (told about life of this period later in initial heads of "Floriana 2 Wilhiu Hluszu" in the illustrated Tud Uuet weekly of 1922, the certain state of 1929) . Tried to turn the ruined manor into livestock economy also later. At the end of 1919 - 20 she becomes the initiator of public undertakings around Grushevo: laid the foundation of an agricultural circle, constructed a steam bath, restores the Jewish schools in Antopole. During the Russian-Polish war of Rodzivichovn was in Warsaw where fulfilled duties of the secretary in the main committee of the Polish Red Cross, and also was a commandant of Women's Voluntary group of Lviv protecting Warsaw. She received the award Orlaf for it that certainly promoted that in 1924 it awarded the Officer Award Polonia Restilula.
After the end of military operations of Rodzivichovn returned to Grushevo. In 1920 in Warsaw the novel "Summer of Forest People" was printed and favourably accepted by criticism. It began it in 1912. In this novel in which there is few thought-up basis a special role was played by the poetic description of beauty of the nature. It led to the fact that the writer became the hero of the novel together with people who carry out the rest in backwoods. This deification to the nature is especially appreciated during the intermilitary period. On revival of Poland Rodzivichovna tried to conduct educational and public work. She organized in Antopole "The Polish club", but as a result of indifference of the government to policy on these lands personal disputes of the writer with the Kobrin Head, resulted in difficulties, the club stopped the work. Rodzivichovna connected spirit of Poland on these lands with large land tenure and a church, at that time when the authorities demanded from it separate parts of a manor: 150 hectares for needs of osadnik.
Rodzivichovna's works this period: a cycle of stories "From a Boundary Bastion" Lviv, 1926, two volumes of stories "Two Councils" Poznan, 1937, represent it as the extreme oppositionist, conservative and noble sense. She became the co-organizer of the union of a shlyakhta. First of all national democrats, and her scheduled anniversaries in 1927, 1932, 1937 - 50 – it creative activity, a name obviously political character used a surname of the popular writer.
Rodzivichovna collected works during the intermilitary period published the Polish publishing house of Rudolf Vegner in Poznan. Rodzivichovna was invited in the non-state association "Camp of National Association". She defiantly refused. In 1934 it was handed a literary award of Elisa Ozheshko. In 1935 handed a laurel wreath of the Polish Literary Academy, but it did not accept it.
Despite awards and on the fact that during the intermilitary period she was the most read author her works were a little republished so far. The famous researcher of literature Kazimikh Chakhovsky wrote the positive monograph about her creativity. In Rodzivichovn's interview called herself not the writer, but first of all the grain-grower. After 1931 she did not write already new works.
World War II begins, she finds Rodzivichovna in Grushevo. In October, 1939 she was moved from a manor (a manor and the house the committee of local government took). Moved through Bug according to counterfeit documents from which followed that she is by origin German. Then together with the faithful companion Skirmuntovnoy, gets to camp in Lodz, from there they were pulled out and rescued by a family of friends of Mazaraki. In 1940 left to Warsaw where spent the last years of life in severe material conditions (the truth friends, and also advance payments of publishing house of Vegner helped). Repeatedly had connection with conspiracy, especially with the Regional army. Here, in Warsaw, found it and revolt. During which it was transferred to different houses as it was sick. Friends, members of PKK and risen cared for it. Warsaw left after capitulation. Spent several days to Mellyanovke, then went to Zhelyaznuyu Mazarahi manor. Lived in a forest area Leonov, and after the postponed pneumonia on November 6, 1944 died. Buried her in Zhelyaznoy, then ashes transferred to the Warsaw cemetery, to the avenue deserved (1948), efforts of friends and the Warsaw union of writers on behalf of which a speech was delivered Hedgehogs by Zaveysky.
Rodzivichovna's works are transferred to many languages – Czech, Lithuanian, German, Serbo-Croatian, Hungarian and others. Three of its novels are the basis for movies "Vereski" (1938) "Frol from a big solitude" (1938). Besides, on the basis of the novel "Summer of Forest People", the feature television movie in 1986 is created. After 1945 several its novels, and in 1985 are renewed. The Krakow literary publishing house opened the novel "Diwatis" the "From Meetings M. Rodzevich" series.
Karasyuk S.N., teacher of history
UO "Kobrin State Professional College of Builders"
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