Paustovsky Konstantin Georgiyevich

Konstantin Paustovsky was born on May 31, 1892 in Moscow. The writer's grandfather Maxim Grigoryevich Paustovsky was a soldier, and the grandmother Gonorata before adoption of Christianity bore a name of Fatm, and was a Turkish woman. On Konstantin Paustovsky's memoirs his grandfather was the mild blue-eyed old man liking to have a cracked tenor ancient thoughts and the Cossack songs, and telling a lot of improbable, and sometimes and touching stories "from the most occurred life".

The writer's father Georgy Paustovsky was a railway statistician for whom among relatives the glory of the thoughtless person, with reputation of the visionary who, according to Konstantin's grandmother, "had no right to marry and bring children" was established. It came from the Zaporizhia Cossacks who moved after defeat of Sechi on river banks Ros about Bila Tserkva. Georgy Paustovsky long did not get on on one place, after service in Moscow lived and worked in Pskov, in Vilno settled in Kiev, on the Southwest railroad later. The writer's mother Maria Paustovskaya was the employee's daughter at sugar plant, and possessed a domineering character. She very seriously treated education of children, and was convinced that only at the strict and severe treatment of children it is possible to grow up from them "something acceptable".

Konstantin Paustovsky had two brothers and the sister. Later he told about them: "In the fall of 1915 I passed from the train into field sanitary group and passed with it a long way of derogation from Lublin in Poland to the town Nesvizha in Belarus. In group from the greased newspaper scrap which got to me I learned that in the same day two of my brothers were killed on different fronts. I remained with mother absolutely one, except halfblind and my sick sister". The writer's sister Galina died in Kiev in 1936.

In Kiev Konstantin Paustovsky studied in the 1st Kiev classical gymnasium. When it was in the sixth class, the father left a family, and Konstantin was forced to earn independently to himself a living and study by tutoring. In an autobiographical sketch "Several sketchy thoughts" in 1967 Paustovsky wrote: "The desire of unusual pursued me since the childhood. My state could be determined by two words: admiration before the imagined world and - melancholy because of impossibility to see it. These two feelings prevailed in my youthful verses and the first unripe prose".

Huge influence on Paustovsky, especially in days of youth, rendered Alexander Green's creativity. Later Paustovsky told about the youth: "I studied in Kiev, in a classical gymnasium. Our release was lucky: we had good teachers of so-called "humanities" - the Russian literature, history and psychology. We knew literature and loved and, of course, spent more time for reading books, than on preparation of lessons. The Kiev spring, dazzling and gentle spring of Ukraine was the best time - a time of impetuous dreams, hobbies and sleepless nights-. It sank in a dewy lilac, in slightly sticky first greens of the Kiev gardens, in a smell a poplar and pink candles of old chestnuts. In such spring it was necessary to fall in love with grammar-school girls with thick plaits and not to write verses. And I wrote them without everyone I will hold, on two - three poems a day. In our family, on time of that time which was considered as a front line and liberal, spoke about the people much, but meant by it mainly peasants. About workers, spoke about the proletariat seldom. At that time at the word "proletariat" I imagined huge and smoky plants - Putilovsky, Obukhovsk and Izhora, - as though all Russian working class was built only in St. Petersburg and at these plants".

The first small story of Konstantin Paustovsky "On water", written in the last year studies to gymnasiums, was published in the Kiev almanac "Ogni" in 1912. After the termination of a gymnasium Paustovsky studied at the Kiev university, then was transferred to the Moscow university, in the summer still earning additionally tutoring. World War I forced it to interrupt study, and Paustovsky became a leader by the Moscow tram, and also worked at the sanitary train. In 1915 with field sanitary group it receded together with the Russian army across Poland and Belarus. He told: "In the fall of 1915 I passed from the train into field sanitary group and passed with it a long way of derogation from Lublin in Poland to the town Nesvizha in Belarus".

After death at the front of two elder brothers Paustovsky returned to mother to Moscow, but soon started vagabond life over again. Within a year worked at steel works in Ekaterinoslav and Yuzovke and at boiler plant in Taganrog. In 1916 he became a fisherman in artel on the Sea of Azov. Living in Taganrog, Paustovsky began to write the first novel "Romanticism" which was published in 1935. Which this novel, contents and mood corresponded to its name, was noted by author's search of a liriko-prosaic form. Paustovsky sought to create the complete subject narration about what he happened to see and feel in youth. One of heroes of the novel, an old Oscar, all life opposed to the fact that it was tried to be turned from the artist into the getter. The destiny of the artist who sought to overcome loneliness was the main motive of "Romantics".

Paustovsky met February and October revolutions of 1917 in Moscow. After a victory of the Soviet power he began to work as the journalist and "led intense life of newspaper editions". But soon the writer went to Kiev where his mother got over, and endured several revolutions there during Civil war. Soon Paustovsky appeared in Odessa where got on Wednesday same, as well as he, young writers. Having lived two years in Odessa, Paustovsky went to Sukhumi, then moved to Batum, then - to Tiflis. Wanderings across the Caucasus brought Paustovsky into Armenia and northern Persia. The writer wrote about that time, and the wanderings: "In Odessa I for the first time got to the circle of young writers. Among employees of "Seaman" there were Katayev, Ilf, Bagritsky, Shengelia, Lev Slavin, Babel, Andrey Sobol, Semyon Kirsanov and even the aged writer Yushkevich. I lived in Odessa by the sea, and wrote much, but was not printed yet, considering that I did not achieve yet ability to seize any material and a genre. Soon me "the muse of distant wanderings" seized again. I left Odessa, lived in Sukhumi, in Batumi, in Tbilisi, was in Erivani, Baku and Dzhulf, so far, at last, did not return to Moscow".

Having returned in 1923 to Moscow, Paustovsky began to work as the editor of GROWTH. At this time not only its sketches, but also stories were printed. In 1928 there was the first collection of stories of Paustovsky "The oncoming ships". The novel "Shining Clouds" was the same year written. In this work the detective and adventurous intrigue was combined with the autobiographical episodes connected with Paustovsky's trips across Black Sea Coast and the Caucasus. In a year of writing of the novel the writer worked in the newspaper of water-transport workers "At watch" with which Alexey Novikov-Priboy, Paustovsky's schoolmate on the 1st Kiev gymnasium Mikhail Bulgakov and Valentin Katayev at that time cooperated. In the 1930th years Paustovsky actively worked as the journalist of the Pravda newspaper and magazines "30 days", "Our achievements" and other editions, visited Solikamsk, Astrakhan, Kalmykia and many other places - in fact, visited all country. Many impressions of these trips "without delay" described by it in newspaper sketches were embodied later in works of art. So, the hero of a sketch of the 1930th years "Underwater winds" became a prototype of the main character of the story "Kara-Bugaz", written in 1932.

         K. Paustovsky. 1930th years.

Creation history "Kara-Bugaza" is in detail described in the book of sketches and Paustovsky's stories "Golden rose" in 1955 - one of the most known works of the Russian literature devoted to judgment of the nature of creativity. In "Kara-Bugaze" to Paustovsky rasskazak about development of deposits of glauberovy salt in the Gulf Caspian Sea it is as poetical, as about wanderings of the youth romantic in the first works. The story "Colchis" in 1934 is devoted to transformation of historical reality, creation of man-made subtropics. The great Georgian artist-primitive Nicko Pirosmani became a prototype of one of heroes of Colchis. After issue "Kara-Bugaza" Paustovsky left service and became the professional writer. He still went much, lived on the Kola Peninsula and in Ukraine, visited Volga, Kama, Don, Dnieper and other great rivers, in Central Asia, in the Crimea, in Altai, in Pskov, Novgorod, in Belarus and other places.

Having gone the hospital attendant to World War I, future writer met the sister of mercy Ekaterina Zagorskaya about whom told: "I love it more mother, it is more than itself... Hatidzhe is a rush, a side divine, pleasure, melancholy, an illness, unknown achievements and tortures …". Why Hatidzhe? Ekaterina Stepanovna spent summer of 1914 in a small village on the Crimean coast, and local Tatars called her Hatidzhe that in Russian meant "Ekaterina". In the summer of 1916 Konstantin Paustovsky and Ekaterina Zagorskaya got married in the Subforest Settlement, native for Ekaterina, in Ryazan near Lukhovitsy, and in August, 1925 in Ryazan at Paustovsky the son Vadim was born. It during all life carefully stored later archive of parents, laboriously collected materials, Paustovsky concerning a family tree - documents, photos and memoirs. He liked to travel around those places where there was his father and which were described in his works. Vadim Konstantinovich was an interesting, selfless story-teller. And substantial also its publications about Konstantin Paustovsky - articles, sketches, comments and epilogs to works of the father from whom he inherited literary gift were not less interesting. Vadim Konstantinovich is a lot of time as the consultant devoted to the literary museum center of Konstantin Paustovsky, was a member of public council of the Paustovsky's World magazine, one of organizers and the indispensable participant of conferences, meetings, the museum evenings devoted to creativity of his father.

In 1936 Ekaterina Zagorskaya and Konstantin Paustovsky left then Ekaterina admitted to relatives that she agreed to divorce the husband itself as she could not take out that that "contacted the Pole", meaning the second wife of Paustovsky. Konstantin Georgiyevich continued to care for the son Vadim and the ambassador of divorce. Vadim Paustovsky about a break-up of the parents so wrote in comments to the first volume of works of the father: "In "The story about life" and other books of the father many events from life of my parents in early years, but, of course, not everyone are reflected. The twentieth years were very important for the father. As a little he was printed, wrote very much. It is possible to tell safely that then that and the foundation for its professionalism was laid. Its first books passed almost unnoticed, then at once the literary success of the beginning of the 1930th years followed. And here in 1936, after twenty years of joint life, my parents disperse. Whether there was successful Ekaterina Zagorskaya's marriage with Konstantin Paustovsky? Yes and no. In youth there was a big love which served as a support in difficulties and instilled cheerful confidence in the forces. The father was always rather inclined to a reflection, to contemplate perception of life. Mother, on the contrary, was a person of big energy and persistence until it was broken by an illness. In its independent character independence and vulnerability, goodwill and a capriciousness, tranquility and nervousness inexplicably met. I was told that Eduard Bagritsky very much appreciated in it property which called "sincere dedication", and at the same time liked to repeat: "Ekaterina Stepanovna is the fantastic woman". Perhaps, it is possible to carry words to it V. I. Nemirovich Danchenko that "the Russian intelligent woman in the man could be fond of nothing as selflessly as talent". Therefore marriage was strong while everything was subordinated to a main objective - literary creativity of the father. When it at last became reality, tension of difficult years affected, both were tired especially as mother was a person with the creative plans and aspirations too. Besides, frankly speaking, the father was not such a good family man, despite external complaisance. A lot of things collected, and both had to suppress a lot of things. In a word, if the spouses appreciating each other nevertheless leave, - for this purpose there are always good reasons. These reasons became aggravated from the beginning of serious nervous exhaustion at mother which developed gradually and began to be shown exactly in the mid-thirties. At the father traces of difficult years remained until the end of life in the form of the heaviest attacks of asthma too. In "Far years", the first book "Stories about Life", it is much told about a break-up of parents of the father. Obviously, there are families noted by such press from generation to generation".

K. G. Paustovsky and V. V. Navashina-Paustovskaya on a narrow-gage railway in Solotche. In a car window: writer's son Vadim and adopted son Sergey Navashin. End of the 1930th years.

Paustovsky got acquainted with Valeria Valishevskaya-Nevashina Constantine in the second half of the 1930th years. He was married, she was married, but both of them left the families, and Valeria Vladimirovna married Konstantin Paustovsky, having become the inspirer of his many works - for example, during creation of the works "Meshchersky Party" and "Throw on the South" Valishevskaya was Maria's prototype. Valeria Valishevskaya was a sister of the Polish artist Sigismund Valishevsky, famous in the 1920th years, whose works was in Valeria Vladimirovna's meeting. In 1963 it transferred more than 110 pictorial and graphic works of Sigismund Valishevsky to gift to National gallery in Warsaw, having retained the most favourite.

K. G. Paustovsky and V. V. Navashina-Paustovskaya. End of the 1930th years.

A specific place in Konstantin Paustovsky's creativity was held by the Meshchersky region where he long lived one or with friends writers – Arkady Gaidar and Reuben Frayerman. Paustovsky wrote about Meshchora loved by it: "I found the most great, simple and artless happiness in the forest Meshchersky region. Happiness of proximity to the earth, concentration and internal freedom, favourite thoughts and intense work. To Central Russia - and only it - I am obliged by the majority of the things written by me. I will mention only main: "The Meshchersky party", "Isaak Levitan", "Story about the woods", cycle of stories "Summer Days", "Old Boat", "Night in October", "Telegram", "Rainy Dawn", "Cordon 273", "In Depth of Russia", "Alone with a Fall", "Ilyinsky Whirlpool". The Central Russian remote place became for Paustovsky the place of peculiar "emigration", creative - and it is possible, and physical - rescue during Stalin repressions.

In days of the Great Patriotic War Paustovsky worked as the war correspondent and wrote stories, among them there was "Snow" written in 1943 and the "Rainy dawn" written in 1945 which critics called the most delicate lyrical water colors.

In the 1950th years Paustovsky lived in Moscow and in Tarusa on Oka. Also "Tarussky pages" in 1961 became one of authors of the major collective collections of the democratic direction "Literary Moscow" in 1956. In days of "thaw" Paustovsky actively supported literary and political rehabilitation of the writers Isaak Babel, Yury Olesha, Mikhail Bulgakov, Alexander Green and Nikolay Zabolotsky driven at Stalin.

In 1939 Konstantin Paustovsky got acquainted with the actress of theater of Meyerhold Tatyana Evteeva - Arbuzova who became in 1950 his third wife.

Paustovsky with the son Alyosha and last wife Tatyana Arbuzova.

Before acquaintance to Paustovsky Tatyana Evteeva was a wife of the playwright Alexey Arbuzov. "Tenderness, my only person, I swear life that such love (without boasting) was not on light. Was not and will not be, all other love - nonsense and nonsense. Let quietly and happily your heart, my heart fight! All of us will be happy, all! I know and I trust..." - Konstantin Paustovsky wrote Tatyana Evseeva. Tatyana Alekseevna had a daughter from first marriage – Galina Arbuzova, and to Paustovsky she gave birth to the son Alexey in 1950. Alexey grew and was formed in the creative atmosphere of the literary house in the sphere of intellectual searches of young writers and artists, but was not similar to the "house" and spoiled by parental attention child. With the company of artists he wandered about Tarusa's vicinities, disappearing sometimes from the house on two, for three days. He wrote surprising and not all clear pictures, and died at the age of 26 years of drug overdose.

K. G. Paustovsky. Tarusa. April, 1955.

With 1945th on the 1963rd years Paustovsky wrote the main work - the autobiographical "Story about life" consisting of six books: "Far years", "Uneasy youth", "Beginning of an unknown century", "Time of big expectations", "Throw on the South" and "Book of wanderings".

In "The story about life", in its second part — "Uneasy youth" — one of sections carries the name "Town of Kobrin". "We left Brest to the town of Kobrin — the narration so begins. — With us sir Gronsky went on the rumpled and scratched Forde. Brest burned. Blew up serf forts. The sky rose behind us a pink smoke …" And further: "By the evening we entered the town of Kobrin. The earth, black as coal, it was stirred in swill by the receding army. Slanting houses with the pulled-down rotten roofs went to dirt on the thresholds.

Horses neighed in the dark, lamps mutno shone, the loosened wheels clanked, and the rain flew down from roofs noisy streams. In Kobrin we saw how we took away from the town of the Jewish Saint, so-called "tsadik".

Gronsky told us that in the Western region and Poland there are several such tsadik. They live always on small places …" In Kobrin hospital attendants stopped in a synagogue. Down the street there passed mobile kitchens. The hungry crowd of refugees was torn to coppers with food. Mad, hungry people with glass eyes trampled, crushed the boy whom hospital attendants sponsored and wanted to feed. "We with Spolokh rushed to the boy, but the crowd flung away us. I could not shout. A spasm squeezed to me a throat. I snatched out the revolver and discharged it in air. The crowd was distributed. The boy lay in dirt. The tear still flew down from his dead pale cheek …"

In the mid-fifties to Paustovsky world recognition came, and the writer began to travel around Europe often. He visited Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Poland, Turkey, Greece, Sweden, Italy and other countries. In 1965 Paustovsky lived on the island of Capri. Impressions of these trips formed the basis of stories and traveling sketches of the 1950-1960th years "The Italian meetings", "Fleeting Paris", "Fires of English Channel" and other works. In the same 1965 officials from the Soviet Union managed to change the decision of the Nobel committee on winning of the award to Konstantin Paustovsky and to achieve its delivery to Mikhail Sholokhov.

Most of modern readers knows Konstantin Paustovsky as the singer of the Russian nature from whose pen remarkable descriptions of the South and a midland of Russia, Black Sea Coast and Oka edge issued. However to very few people bright and compelling novels and Paustovsky's stories which action is developed in the first quarter of the 20th century against terrible events of wars and revolutions, social shocks and hopes for bright future are known now. All life Paustovsky dreamed to write the big book devoted to the remarkable people, not only famous, but also unknown and forgotten. He managed to publish some sketches of short, but picturesque biographies of writers with which was or he is well familiar personally - Bitter, Olesha, Prishvin, Green, Bagritsky, or that whose creativity especially fascinated him - Chekhov, Blok, Maupassant, Bunin and Hugo. All of them were united "by art to see the world", so valued Paustovsky living not in the best for the master of graceful literature time. Its literary maturity fell on 1930th and 1950th in which Tynyanov found rescue in literary criticism, Bakhtin - in cultural science, Paustovsky - in studying of the nature of language and creativity, in beauty of the woods of Ryazanshchina, in a silent provincial cosiness of Tarusa.

K. G. Paustovsky with a dog. Tarusa. 1961.


Konstantin Georgiyevich Paustovsky died in 1968 in Moscow, and according to the will was buried on a city cemetery of Tarusa. The place where there is its grave, - the high hill surrounded with trees with a gleam on Tarusku's river, - it was chosen as the writer.

 

Author Tatyana Halina
 

The used materials:
K.G. Paustovsky "1966 is short about itself".
K.G. Paustovsky of "Letter from Tarusa"
K.G. Paustovsky "Feeling of history"

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