Night in 1124 day | Articles about Kobrin | Tourist Kobrin

Articles about Kobrin: 1941 - 1945

Night in 1124 day

That Saturday evening on June 21, 1941 almost all youth of the city was on "music" — a dancing-party. Among dancing there were strangers who behaved quite freely. But most of all in their talk not clear hints about events of tomorrow disturbed.

And the Hitlerite "fifth column" already began to work in the city. Having used that because of Bug to Belarus still there was a considerable flow of the refugees who were escaping from fascists and humanely being accepted by the Soviet power, Hitlerite diversionary services abandoned many agents who in the appointed hour started implementation of diversions in border areas. At half past one a.m. the pumping station failed, in several places were cut power lines, communication between separate military divisions and with a district staff was broken.

This last peace evening the commander of the 123rd aviaregiment major B. N. Surin went to a part arrangement. The facts which became known to it guarded, and he ordered to alarm all at midnight. Were hastily cleaned from "a red ruler" and the fighters I-153 "tea" are disguised, brand new "yaks" are dispersed (their development only began). Some "seagulls" who failed the day before remained in the field. Surin ordered to give ammunition from a warehouse and to bring their quantity to the necessary maximum in a fighting situation. Were gradually brought into combat readiness and other auxiliary services. Began to warm up motors just in case. Then everything calmed down. In these business cares tension as though settled, at heart it became quieter. The major looked at the East. There hardly dawn began to dawn. Stuffy summer night came to an end, morning began on June 22.  

But here from the West still disappearing in a gloom the rumble of someone else's motors began to accrue. At four o'clock in the morning seventy fascist "yunkers" with we howl began to dive on airfield, bringing down hundreds of bombs on a runway and the next vicinities. Doubts were not: it is war. "All in air!" — Surin gave only team, right at this moment, and itself rushed to the car.

"Seagulls", replacing each other, settled down in several tiers at the height from 200 to 5000 meters. Them was twenty — thirty, "yunkers" — not less than sixty. But here the first fascist cars failed, lined, on the earth. "Yunkersa" began to leave. Soon they were replaced by attack planes of Me-110 and the fighters Me-109. And again "seagulls" led fight. The enemy sent one for other group of 20 — 60 planes. It did not give to our pilots the chance to refuel, fill up a unit of fire and allowed fascists to hold a strategic initiative. "Seagulls" managed to adjust "conveyor": take-off — air fight — landing during which land personnel, also working at a limit of forces, managed to serve the heated cars. Both so from four in the morning and till one o'clock in the afternoon.

The major Surin carried out four air battles, shot down three planes. Fatally wounded in time of the last fight, came in the land. It managed to put "seagull", without having caused her damages, and it was the last that he could make. Fellow soldiers buried the major B. N. Surin here, near airfield, at the road.

Air fights broke out and at some distance from Kobrin. At Zhabinka about 10 o'clock in the morning four of our fighters met the eight of "messer" and brought down three of them. In this fight one of first in the begun war of air rams took place. It was carried out by the lieutenant P. S. Ryabtsev. In total pilots of the 123rd destructive regiment shot down 30 enemy planes in these first hours. By noon the German Egyptian vultures ceased to appear in the sky on the Kobrin direction. However and our losses were notable, efficient there were only 12 planes. They received the order to fly on the airfield located near Pinsk.

Dedication of the Soviet pilots considerably provided a possibility of expansion of forces of the 4th army deployed in this area. The building of a staff of army was destroyed by a direct hit of an air bomb. All that escaped was necessary, to evacuate to the village Bukhovichi, and then to the village of the Dam.

From Zhabinki on Kobrin there came two tank, one motorized also several infantry divisions of the 12th army case of the opponent. They were resisted by parts of the 28th shooting case and the 22nd tank division which were slowly departing to Kobrin. Directly under the city held the fort of part of the 6th shooting division and the group of the colonel A. V. Manevich consisting of two battalions of infantry, an artillery division and two tank companies.

In the beginning the enemy tried to strike a main blow to the north of Kobrin, but at Tevli's boundary — Andronovo — Patriki about 10 o'clock in the morning was stopped on June 23. Here Red Army men managed to hold on till 16 o'clock. The 22nd tank division under command of the major general V. P. Puganov which was to the northwest of the city near the village of the Name-day was a core of defense of this boundary. After 16 hours Germans, having considered that they deal with beforehand prepared line of defense, carried out the strengthened artillery preparation and only then resumed approach. Again on Kobrin fascist tanks behind which chains of submachine gunners moved went. Fight ran high. Shells were torn, the equipment burned, from a suffocating smoke and black dust day grew dim. When ammunition came to an end, the Soviet tankmen rammed the enemy. The crew of the lit-up BT-7 tank which was ordered by the communist Victor Skvortsov acted this way. And other crew — his commander was the Komsomol member Lyutikov — did not get out of the car filled with a flame. Heroes managed to line the Hitlerite tank, machine-gun fire to mow ten submachine gunners, but died.

Being in a fighting vehicle, did not stop directing battle and itself the commander of the 22nd division major general V. P. Puganov took in it part. He died on a fighting post.

About 19 hours the German command directed some more tank divisions along Mukhavts. With new support of aircraft they began to restrict our parts. The number of tanks and artillery considerably decreased, ammunition was on an outcome, fuel is almost spent therefore command of the 4th army made the decision to leave a Kobrin boundary.

By the evening on June 23, 1941 Hitlerites entered the city. From this point the most tragic period in all its seven hundred-summer history began.

During bombardments it was damaged and more than 200 houses and as much other constructions burned down, the power plant, 3 mills, tanning and sawing plants, the railway station, all bridges and some other objects are blown up. The German aircraft destroyed by bombing the station during the first unexpected raid. Big sites of a cloth of the railroad towards Pinsk therefore from Kobrin almost nothing managed to be evacuated were destroyed. Especially the southern and southwest suburbs were damaged. Several hundreds of people died. But the most terrible expected inhabitants ahead.

In occupied territories Hitlerites aspired to suppress by the knowing no limit terror at the population any ability to resistance, to break it morally and psychologically, to establish "a new order" — slavery on fascist manners. Hardly German garrison "developed" the territory of the city and placed in it all carefully developed systems of retaliatory bodies as the terrible car of destruction right there started working. At the beginning of July, 1941 the Gestapo seized about 200 people who incidentally were on street who then were taken out to the district of the village of Patrika which became to one of places of mass punishments and there are shot. In August the occupational authorities unexpectedly showed "favor": declared the forthcoming delivery of a grant to all disabled and sick inhabitants for what they were offered to be in gebitskomissariat, taken place in the school No. 1. 180 people came. They were shipped in cars and taken out to the village of the Name-day where already waited for ekzekutsionny group of Gestapo men...

Ominous popularity among the population was gained by a slope from turn of Pinskoye Highway at rise on the bridge via the Dnepro-Bugsky channel. He was elected for the punishments by military commandant's office. Almost daily at about noon here at a mad speed there came cars. Quickly the cordon with dogs was built. Passersby quite often became witnesses of awful shows. From trucks pushed out the people beaten, tormented with tortures with the connected hands, kicks forced to kneel. Then executioners, going along the rank which stiffened at a slope, methodically shot at a nape of each victim. The killed slid downhill. Sometimes punishment was diversified. The victims were given a free hand and with a smile suggested to run, and then shot at a back. So Grinyuki's newlyweds who, being saved from death, strong held hands died." Slope" — it the word gained value of own name from kobrinets. Here, on the Slope, the former seaman of the Baltic Fleet, the participant of October revolution, the activist from the village of Zalesye Kirill Prokopuk, many communists and Komsomol members of the city, prisoners of war commanders and fighters of Red Army courageously met death. Here guerrilla coherent Grigory Koshel's family — the wife and three juvenile children was shot (the senior is 7 years old, younger 3 years).

In the first days of occupation Hitlerites tried to create visibility of legality of the actions. Having data on Ekaterina Gasilevich's activity, prisoners of a concentration camp in Bereze-Kartuzsky during rule of bourgeois and landowner Poland, they organized public trial of it with the invitation of everyone. However fans to take a look at a fascist court among honest citizens was not. Having quickly curtailed the judicial comedy, Gestapo men shot the patriot.

Invaders attached special significance to demonstration of the military progress, specially did not remove the broken Soviet tanks — certificates of drama events of the beginning of war. Hardly the front was removed from Kobrin, the tractor brought because of Bona where still quite recently there was a fight which is lined with a direct hit the BT-7 tank with the burned bodies of the Soviet tankmen. The tank was dragged up to a monument to V. I. Lenin that was on the former Market square renamed on the eve of war into Liberty Square. By calculations of invaders, this show had to frighten, plunge people into despair, but the effect appeared absolutely other: not the fear of power of the German weapon, but pain and anger were on faces kobrinchan. Then the tank was removed, and the monument was destroyed.

"Never will win against those people — V. I. Lenin said — in which workers and peasants in the majority learned, felt and saw that they defend... that business which victory to them and their children will provide an opportunity to use all benefits of culture, all creations of human work". Like other Soviet citizens who appeared in temporarily occupied territory, inhabitants of Kobrin district joined in the general fight against the enemy.

Suddenness of occupation did not leave an opportunity for preliminary work on creation of the illegal organizations of party and Komsomol. They will be created later. The Gestapo informed on many party and Komsomol and public activists the first actions pulled out them from ranks of resistance. In the beginning the anti-fascist movement was deprived of the centralized management. And still, despite all difficulties, it, this movement, arose in the very first days of fascist bondage.

On July 3, 1941 in the village Turnaya in Dmitry Borisyuk's house four persons clung to the radio receiver (in disobedience of the order of the occupational authorities it was not handed over): the owner and his close friends — Timofey Kravchuk, Matvei Lukashuk, Ignat Fisyuk. Listened to far Moscow. The chairman of the State committee of defense I. V. Stalin addressed to the Soviet people. Soon in the next villages and in Kobrin there were leaflets in which the content of this performance which was coming to an end with words was briefly retold: "The enemy will be broken. The victory will be for us!" . So in the village Turnaya, in 14 km from the city, the underground anti-fascist committee began to work. In August, 1941 it was finally issued. D. Borisyuk became the chairman, his deputy — T. Kravchuk, the communist, the first chairman of collective farm of Kalinin formed in Turnoy in 1940. Also M. Lukashuk, I. Fisyuk, V. Selivonik and S. Mikushko were a part of underground committee. Then distributed duties. Sofya Mikushko and Vasilisa Selivokik was entrusted to organize anti-fascist groups in the villages of Strigovo, Kamenka, Shipovichakh, Polyatichakh, Striyakh, Boguslavichakh, Cherevachitsakh and Sand, and to T. Kravchuk and D. Borisyuk — in the villages located along the railroad up to Antopol. Besides, Kravchuk and Borisyuk had to establish relation with the city. That in Kobrin anti-fascists act too doubts did not exist. Several sabotages and the diversions which are not opened by Germans confirmed it. For example, in September, 1941 in the territory of repair shops where there arrived from the front and other areas the military tekhknika of fascists, someone blew up a warehouse with oil products.

Hitlerites attached to the occupied Kobrin importance as to strategic knot highway and the railroads. Included in their plans also to resume navigation on the Dnepro-Bugsky channel. The guerrilla groups which began to work soon in the neighboring woods began to strike regular blows to enemy communications.

Groups were formed of the fighters of Red Army who got to an environment from the locals who had experience of underground fight in the ranks of PTDC of B from representatives of the Soviet power who passed to illegal status in the very first days of war. About the village of Recyca the guerrilla group under Victor Boyko's command, the political leader of Red Army located by fall of 1941. In the Dakhlovsky woods, near the village of Plyanta, other group numbering 25 people began to be based. It was headed by I. I. Orlov. Such medium-sized formations carried out various diversions on roads, destroyed cable telecommunication, attacked police stations.

In August, 1941 the chairman of the Village Council of the village of Zosima Alexey Naumchik, the communist, in the past the underground worker went to the wood. Together with it his friends and adherents left: Alexey Maksimuk, Konstantin Gapasyuk, Ivan and Alexey Semenyuki, Roman Zhigman and others.

A. Naumchik became the initiator of association in 1942 of the small separate groups operating in the Dakhlovsky wood. So the guerrilla group, of V. I. Chapayev was born. The commander he was elected I. Orlov, the commissioner — V. Boyko, A. Naumchik headed investigation. To summer of the same year the fighting account of chapayevets made 18 derailed echelons of the opponent and several crushed garrisons. By the end of 1943 the group grew in number and in January, 1944 was transformed to the guerrilla crew bearing the same name. Her guerrillas chose as the commander K. S. Gapasyuk, later the crew was headed by F. N. Baranov. It consisted of four groups. The group, and then crew of V. I. Chapayev had the steady, well kept dark communications with the Turnyansky anti-fascist underground which in turn had coherent in Kobrin. Such chain allowed guerrillas to receive beforehand data on intentions of fascists and to respectively plan operations. Chapayevtsa controlled northern and northeast zones of Kobrin district.

From East side of Kobrin district in the Grushovsky and Detkovichsky woods the guerrilla group of S. M. Kirov worked. Here quite often temporarily road crews of other guerrilla connections were based. On the southwest from the city the Old rural woods — an area of coverage of the otkryad called by the name of the organizer and commander of investigation M. Chernak who died in May, 1943 lasted. In southeast part of the area there were groups of a name. I. Kotovsky and of N. A. Shchors which protected guerrilla airfield near the village Svoryn. To this village the way to Hitlerites was closed, the Soviet power worked there, and the airfield accepted nearly an every night planes from the Continent. There was a basis for guerrilla supply.

Except these guerrilla groups in Kobrin district in 1943 located and actively two prospecting and diversionary groups worked. One of them under command of the major V. Savelyev was based in the Dakhlovsky wood, another which was headed by the Komsomol member A. Nikitin — at the village October.

Anti-fascists from Turnoy supplied group of S. M. Kirov with the tolite necessary for production min. Taught underground workers to melt tolite from unexploded shells and bombs the former defender of the Brest fortress military engineer B. N. Mikhaylovsky escaping from the German prisoner-of-war camp. Operation was very risky, but other exit was not. Heads of anti-fascist committee were engaged in this delicate work, without wishing to endanger others. At the end of April, 1943 there was a misfortune: when smelting tolite from shells of an unfamiliar design there was an explosion, D. Borisyuk, M. Lukashuk and S. Karpuk died, those that stood at the very beginning of the organization of the anti-fascist movement on Kobrin district. But activity of the underground organization did not stop. It was headed by other activist — Timofey Kravchuk.

The Turnyansky committee received data on the underground group operating in Kobrin which consisted of widows of the military personnel, the dead at defense of the Brest fortress. Soon one of them — G. K. Shablovskaya moved together with four daughters to Turnuyu. Through it communication of committee with those who remained in the city began to be carried out. Shablovskaya often went to Kobrin to Ekaterina Lisovskaya who settled pa6oTatb the translator in gebitskomissariat, received from it data on the preparing punitive actions, lists of youth for sending to Germany, and also various references and forms necessary for underground workers, paper and a carbon paper for leaflets. Leaflets with messages of Sovinformburo were transferred to the city from Turnoy. Maria Karpuk and A. N. Kuresha received and extended them.

In one group from E. Lisovskaya there were Olga Lopatina, Ksenia Mayorova, Galina Arbuzova. Galina Arbuzova and Pyotr Vasilenko working together with her in hospital, besides, were connected with guerrillas of group of the name M. B. Frunze. Patriots helped to flee the city in group to 48 prisoners of war.

In July, 1942 Hitlerites suited a public execution of three guerrillas captured during a punitive action at Liberty Square. They were conducted from prison to the area down the street Soviet through a corridor from the built police officers and gendarmes. Or rather, there were two — went and bore on a stretcher hard wounded the third. Guerrillas courageously accepted death, without having betrayed the companions.

Till 1941 a significant amount of the Jewish population lived in Kobrin. At once after occupation Germans defined ghetto borders where drove Jewish people, having divided them into two groups. The first group was made by those who had a profession, were people workmen. They were placed in a ghetto "And" — the quarter limited to Suvorov's streets, International, October, May Day, Kirov. Not having specialties appeared in a ghetto of "B". It began from Liberty Square, occupied a site on the left side of Sovetskaya Street, included Sportivnuyu Street, Belarusian, on September 17 and came to an end with Mukhavts's coast. In the spring of 1942 of inhabitants of a ghetto of "B" — 1800 people Shch drove to the station and by rail delivered to Bronnaya Gore's station. Here all of them were shot.

Ghetto "And" — work of the people inhabiting it was used by invaders — existed slightly longer — till fall of 1942. And then over 4 thousand people who were contained here were shot on the southern suburb of the city. Corpses dumped in three huge trenches, having hardly powdered from above with the earth. In the spring of 1944, having a presentiment of payment approach, fascists hastily tried to destroy traces of the crimes. From Kobrin prison drove 80 prisoners and forced them to dig out these trenches, to take the semi-decayed corpses, and then, having put stacks, to burn. The trace shot and burned prisoners. Several days wind drove a dense, suffocating smoke on the city. But fascists did not manage to hide a crime: witnesses on the Nuremberg process spoke about it.

Since spring of 1943 the underground anti-fascist and guerrilla movement in Kobrin and vicinities became more organized. It is connected with the fact that near the Vygonovsky lake the Brest underground regional committee of party — the reliable coordinating center, a regional guerrilla staff located. S. I. Sikorsky became his first secretary and the commander of guerrilla connection of the Brest region, the deputy for the general questions — the secretary of regional committee I. I. Bobrov, the chief of force staff — P. V. Pronyagin. Was a part of bureau of regional committee A. I. Fedosyuk, it was entrusted to them to carry out work on a reconstruction of the underground communistic organization in Kobrinskom and the neighboring areas. Fight in the occupied territory entered organizationally new stage.

Big help to a Kobrin underground was given by A. Nikitin and V. Savelyev's prospecting and diversionary groups. At meetings with the management of anti-fascist committee to Turnoy it was decided to carry out in Kobrin several large diversions. For this purpose it was necessary to transport mines with a clockwork to the city. They were brought by A. N. Kuresha (transported through the protected bridge in the cart with sheaves) and Olga Kravchuk (seducing police officers with fat and eggs, it always avoided survey). Maria Karpuk, having received killing freight from Olga, hid it at herself until time to use mines for designated purpose came.

Once on the city the message was carried that Gestapo men arrested some underground worker trying to run by car to guerrillas. Soon the message was confirmed: fascists managed to track down the Komsomol member underground worker Pavel Getman who, performing a task of guerrillas, enclosed a mine in the car of the gebits-commissioner Pantsir. He was cruelly tortured. Without having achieved any recognitions from the courageous patriot, Hitlerites brought him to a prison-yard and lowered not kormlenny several days of sheep-dogs.

The death of perfectly kept dark underground worker was confirmation of already existing assumption that in Kobrin the agent of service SD acts. The anti-fascist committee and Nikitin's intelligence agents began to collect data carefully. And they were very poor. It became known that the agent is fluent in Russian, often changes the appearance, well is guided in a local situation and it is easily accepted in an office to the chief of SD Bichman.

... Alexey Kuresha, having transferred mines to Pyotr Vasilenko and Galina Arbuzova, soon felt for himself shadowing. To warn companions already of an opportunity was not. Meanwhile Arbuzova and Vasilenko started operation implementation — prepared explosion of a fuel warehouse in the territory of military repair shops. Everything went successfully: they did a manhole under a protection, fixed a mine under the tank and safely departed. In the night sky the huge fiery column, then more and more rose. The fire on base continued in the forenoon the next day.

Arbuzova and Vasilenko, without having a presentiment of trouble, quietly went home though knew about the order of anti-fascist committee: after performance of a task to immediately leave the city. Good luck as it sometimes happens, created visibility of safety, urgently pushed on new affairs. In the morning Vasilenko went to work to hospital where he was arrested. Galina, having learned about trouble, hurried to slip out Kobrin. But on Pinsk to the bridge she was seized together with the little daughter

Zhanna. The Gestapo already obtained about underground workers data from the agent of SD. The prison tortured them, but achieved nothing. Zhanna managed to be rescued. On August 13, 1943 Galina Arbuzova and Pyotr Vasilenko were shot at the village of Patrika.

In response to death of patriots in the city explosions thundered: underground workers destroyed a mill, the anti-fascist T. Gorbatovsky in the center undermined a column with a distributive Telephone exchange, A. M. Stolineky's mine destroyed the German bakery, the mine and in the apartment of the fascist official Adolf Reentrop blew up (it, however, did not suffer, but all his protection died). Tadeush Gorbatovsky was soon seized — to him the trace specified by the agent of SD stretched too.

From Turnoy warned through coherent that the agent got into the Kobrin organization, asked to be very careful, to check carefully new people. But already a lot of things knew Gestapo. After T. Gorbatovsky A. Stolinsky, A. Veremchuk, L. Malafeyuk, A. Beletsky, A. Savosik were caught in his net. Arrests followed one by one. It was necessary to leave the city. But only A. N. Kuresha who arrived to group of V. I. Chapayev could leave.

The day before Galina Shablovskaya reported to the management of turnyansky committee that her city coherent Olga Lopatina got acquainted with a certain Gleb. That persistently asked to reduce it with guerrillas, promised to get food to the receiver. Underground workers decided to check it, and Shablovskaya and Lopatina strictly ordered not to contact with anybody of an underground. Unfortunately, this order was violated. G. Shablovskaya after some time nevertheless decided to visit O. Lopatina. To them also the underground worker K. Mayorova living in the neighbourhood glanced. Hardly it entered Lopatina's apartment as all three were seized by Gestapo men. After cruel tortures of podpolkshchitsa shot.

It was entrusted to Nikitin's group to track down and take the experienced fascist agent by all means. Signs of "Gleb" were already known to intelligence agents. Once from the village the Stone was reported that there saw the stranger similar to the wanted agent. A. Nikitin together with two intelligence agents quickly went there. Here met them coherent, specified where the stranger introduced by the guerrilla followed. Overtook it on turn of the road conducting on the village October however to take it appeared not easy: he was cunning and trained. The Hitlerite spy managed to escape, he nearly disappeared, but was overtaken by automatic turn of A. Nikitin. The documents found at it confirmed that it was the one who caused so many troubles to a Kobrin underground — the supersecret agent of Gestapo and SD Johann Shendzelerts.

The chief of SD Bichman enraged by loss of the assistant ordered to execute all captured underground workers. Completely also members of the families executed disappeared. Only later, when Kobrin was released, their destiny became known. Red Army men paid attention to a big bed with flowers in the middle of a prison-yard. Dug out. It turned out that the bed covered the deep hole filled with bodies of the tortured women and children.

Anti-fascists decided to revenge the executioner Bichman. At underground workers through coherent E. Lisovskaya contact with the German soldier serving in an air unit — Max Abents was come. His father, the participant of November revolution in Germany, died in 1918. Lisovskaya who was well knowing German found out that Max would like to help than - nibud to anti-fascists. To it also suggested to destroy Bichman. On New Year's Eve 1944 Abents as a part of patrol bypassed the city. Having noticed that at the chief of SD windows are badly closed, he entered its apartment and made the remark on violation of a blackout. Bichman boiled: some soldier dares to specify to him! Having used scandal as an occasion, Max Abents shot at the chief of security service. The future of the German anti-fascist is unknown. Gestapo men managed to detain Ekaterina Lisovskaya. Perhaps, they knew of its contacts with Max Abents. After tortures the brave underground worker was shot.

Fascists for some time became silent. With nightfall none of officers and officials risked to go outside. Their houses were supplied with any protection devices, the patrol service amplified. To the city there arrived several special teams on fight against "saboteurs".

As invaders sophisticated repressions tried to suppress the anti-fascist movement and to exterminate an underground, they did not manage it. The dead were succeeded by new fighters. The anti-fascist committee continued to work in the village Turnaya. Coordination, interrelation of actions of underground workers and guerrillas improved, their focus in connection with a reconstruction in November, 1943 of Kobrin district committee Kp/b/b increased. Aleksandra Ivanovna Fedosyuk — in the past the member of PTDC of B, the active builder of the Soviet power in Kobrin district in 1939 — 1940 became its first secretary.

Guerrillas kept under control the majority of the highways going from Kobrin on Pruzhana, to Malorit and Dyvin. On Moskovskoye Highway Germans could move ahead only under the strengthened protection. Blows to railway lines were regularly struck. During occupation on a site Kobrin — Pinsk 398 enemy echelons were derailed. Guerrillas of active use by Hitlerites of the Dnepro-Bugsky channel did not allow, a number of successful operations they reliably preserved it until release of Kobrin district by Red Army.

The underground anti-fascist group which' was headed by Stepan Klimuk operated on Kobrin railway station. Also M. Ignatyuk and P. Nagorny entered it. The group long had no communication with other underground workers of the city and worked independently. In the fall of 1943 around Kobrin under bombs of the Soviet planes the German echelon got. In several cars there were women from Kiev who were carried to Germany. They were left for forced labor, having lodged in the village of Lepesa, near the city. In the winter of 1944 through underground workers railroad workers contact of our intelligence agents abandoned in the back was come with them.

A large amount of tolite was in parts transferred to Lepesy. A. Danilevskaya and S. Bikhert who worked at the territory. a military camp in a sewing workshop, managed perenestives this tolite to the cellar of a staff of the German tank part. At the end of April, 1944 in the building of a staff entered military meeting. Many enemy officers gathered. Immediately in tolite the mine was set up. Powerful explosion swept a staff with all ranks which were there.

Having explosive, S. Klimuk's group had an opportunity for more effective actions also. Underground workers began to put periodically out of action railway arrows, to cling mines with a clockwork to the structures passing through station.

In the spring of 1944 invaders decided to perform broad punitive operations. For this purpose even pulled together front-line units with tanks and planes. After heavy fights Hitlerites managed to push aside guerrillas from the southern zone of Kobrin district for Pripyat and to block crew of V. I. Chapayev in the Dakhlovsky wood. But the crew escaped from an environment and went to the Sporovsky woods. Having been left with nothing, fascists transferred retaliatory groups to other areas that allowed chapayevets to come back to former places of basing again.

The data which are saved up by the German security service specified to fascists location of the management of an anti-fascist underground — the village Turnaya. The action of destruction of the underground organization was headed by the new chief of SD of Vilch. The battalion shuttspolitsayev densely surrounded the village. Timofey Kravchuk and Ignat Fisyuk, so long and successfully directing fight of patriots - kobrinchan died in the started firefight.

Soon after explosion in a staff of the German crew of Vilch ordered to seize all suspects in this case. Among arrested there were S. Klimuk, P. Nagorny, M. Ignatyuk, S. Bikhert and A. Danilevskaya. On May 4, 1944, when before exile of fascist evil spirits from the Kobrin earth there were less than three months, they were hung up at Liberty Square. Today one of city streets bears a name of the brave patriot Alice Danilevskaya.

The front already uncontrollably approached Kobrin. The German command decided to create powerful defensive works here. Since May, 1944 reinforced concrete and earth strengthenings on approaches and in the city began to be built. The enemy counted that approach will begin with the South where our troops far moved ahead, having reached the Carpathians. On the southern suburb of the city drove almost all gorodksky population to dig anti-tank ditches. The group of patriots on the instructions of guerrillas plotted a defensive network of the opponent, specified all ways of approach to the city. Long-awaited hour of release came.

In the evening on July 19, 1944 parts of the 61st army operating in structure of the 1st Belarusian front approached Kobrin. Coming were faced by a task: without putting damages to the city, to take it straight off, with one blow. At dawn the company of the lieutenant Ya. Akhmedshin occupied the base on the left coast of Mukhavts. The powerful gun-fire processed a first line of defense of the opponent from the city East, and then — from its South side. After this division of the 29th and 37th Guards shooting regiments advanced to the attack and rushed into the city. After a quarter they cleared quarter from sat down at houses, entrenchments and earth-and-timber emplacements of fascists. Persistent resistance of Hitlerites was suppressed a gun-fire, in some cases soldiers had to cause fire on themselves. Quite so guards the corporal Sarantsev who got with six other fighters to an environment arrived. He survived and continued fight.

The big group of the opponent which by forces of the attacking infantry did not manage to be beaten out in any way sat down at one of houses. Then from the advanced positions over open sights battery tools under command of the major N. G. Lysenko began to beat fascists. In a few minutes guardsmen moved forward again. In the morning on July 20 the city was freed.

In Kobrin and vicinities the 12th Guards Pinskaya Decorated with the Order of the Red Banner and the 212th Krichevskaya's fighters of shooting divisions battled. For successful military operations the honourable name of "Kobrin" was appropriated to twelve shelves of the 61st army. Kobrin's release created favorable conditions for approach to Brest and an exit to Frontier of the USSR.

When fight calmed down, shelters began to leave people. Them was not so much as it would be desirable to see this joyful day. Kobrin captured by Hitlerites among the first and released among the last Soviet cities endured terrible days and nights. 1124 days of fascist occupation claimed more than 8 thousand lives. In the city and the area more than 12 thousand civilians died. A third of housing stock, all enterprises of the industry, the power plant building, all post and cable communication, the railroad and the station, bridges were destroyed and put out of commission.

Veterans of the Kobrin regiments freeing the city in July of the 44th at a meeting on May 9, 1985 at the military and historical museum of A. V. Suvorov

At once recovery work began. Of course, first of all it was necessary to put those objects which would work for needs of the front, for acceleration of a victory into operation. The airfield from which krasnozvezdny fighters flew up already in the next few days became such object.

As a part of the 149th Pomeranian destructive regiment Decorated with the Order of the Red Banner which was based on Kobrin airfield the pilot Arseny Ivanovich Morozov served. The participant of war since its beginning, he passed a way from the private to the deputy commander of a squadron. On its account there were 149 fighting departures during which it carried out 30 air fights, personally shot down 15 planes of the opponent and 3 more — in group with companions. On July 27, 1944 when fights on approaches to Brest were started, Morozov charged a task of a staff of the front to reconnoiter places of concentration of troops of Hitlerites and their way of retreat. It was its 150th departure. It already broadcast data after successful investigation and came back to airfield. On one of crossings noticed a congestion of enemy troops and equipment. The fighter rushed over the got-off column, watering it with well-aimed fire. There, below, explosions rattled, the flame covered cars, Germans rushed about in panic. Some of them began to scorch from the different weapon on the plane rushing at low height. Morozov got a mortal wound. With the last bit of strength it brought the padded fighter to airfield. When friends ran up to the plane, the pilot was dead. Posthumously to it the rank of the Hero of the Soviet Union is given.

A. I. Morozov was buried in the downtown in the square which began to bear then his name. Subsequently remains of the hero transferred to a mass grave of the Soviet soldiers and guerrillas who died at Kobrin's release — to the square of V. P. Puganov.

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