Articles about Kobrin: Spiritual culture

Paselishchy, zhyllyo, gaspadarchyya pabudova

Terytoryya Kobrynskaga of a rayon ¸vakhodz_ts at a g_storyka-etnagraf_chna reg_yon to Palesse's zakhodnyaa. Pavodle to a typ zasyalennya Kobrynshchyna of adnos_tsets ў asno¸ny yes ra¸n_nnaga, Alya Sustrakayuzza of a taksam of a lyasna, beragava, balotna (vyosk_ Dz_v_n, Habov_chy).

Syaredny adleglasts pam_zh pasyalennyam_ here to a skladaa of 20 — 25 km. At the syaredzena of the XIX Art. naselenasts on 1 square vyarsta ў Kobrynsk_m paveets of a skladal 24,5 chalavek. For para¸nannya: at Slon_msk_m paveets — 16,6, at Belsk_m paveets — 35,2. Asno¸nym_ typam_ pasyalennya ў to ¸ m_nuly byl_ with authority і syalo, sustrakal_sya farms, vakol_ets, myastechk_. At the XVI Art. on terytory_ Kobrynshchyna mel_sya nevyal_k_ya vyosk_ — Ploskaye (3 dvara), Lyakhchytsa (7 dvaro ў), Garyzdrychy (10 dvaro ў), syaredn_kh a g_amer ў — the Stone (58 dvaro ў), Shypov_chy, Batchy (a pas 47 dvaro ў), _la¸sk (30 dvaro ў). Heating century of Charavachytsa znakhodz_l_sya zastsenk_ Lutalaza і Mlynarsk_. Zastsenk_ yak tsh pasyalennya byl_ bl_zk_ya yes hutaro ў. Yana a zvychayna znakhodz_l_sya on kra_ fields і zdaval_sya ў rent to a fractional shlyakhtsa.

At farm_ravann_ a pasel_shcha ў prysutn_chal_ a bess_stemny zabudova, abumo¸leny to skladany geagraf_chny stanov_shcha of a motsn zabalochanay myastsovasts і, і a vul_chny plan_ro¸ka that there was a zvyazana z pravyadzenny zyamelnay reforms of the XVI station Vyosk_ chastsy for ¸syo byl_ adnavul_chnyya (An_skav_chy, Balota, Byarozn, Grushava, Dub_na, Zaversh, Zalesse, Lyshchyk і, Navasyolk і), sustrakal_sya і shmatvul_chnyya (century Habov_chy). Vul_tsa byl_ yak z adna, so і z dvukhbakovay zabudovay, huts razmyashchal_sya to facades yes vul_ets. Heating vyosak znakhodz_l_sya shmatl_k_ya ¸rochyshcha.

Perakhodnay form pam_zh to the cities і syaly byl_ myastechk і, naselenyya ў asno¸ny ramesn_kam_ і gandlyaram_. At the syaredzena of the XIX Art. on terytory_ a suchasnaga of Kobrynskaga of a rayon byl_ two myastechk_ — Dz_v_n і Garadzets. Myastechka Dz_v_n was a zasnavana on "severe Karn і" pra pravyadzenn_ valochnay reforms. Yano znakhodz_lasya on a way z Kobryna ў Kovel. At 1566 at Dz_v_ne me¸sya tsentralna the market і 5 vul_ts, yak_ya Iago's hell adykhodz_l_. Usyago on that hour at a myastechka nal_chval_sya 184 dvara. Garadzets of an atrym ў status myastechka tolk_ ў XVI Art., hots upershynyu zgadvayetsets ў letap_sa stalemate of 1142. At 1563 at _m was 5 vul_ts, at a tsentra znakhodz і ў sya gandlyova plyats.

Naybolyp raspa¸syudzhanym_ byl_ dvara of a pagonnag to a typ (sutselna shoulder strap, albo shoulder strap z to gaps). At vyoska z vul_chnay zabudovay pagonnyya dvara daval_ magchymasts skarats_ts da¸zhynyu vul_ets. Zyamelny reform of the XVI Art. tolk_ a pavyal_chyla to the raspa¸syudzhvayena running dvaro ў on Kobrynshchyna.

Tradytsyynaye zhyllyo swept nastupnyya typa plan_ro¸k_:

a) a hut — sen_ (N_chypar's hut M_khaylav_cha Balanov_cha, the 2nd palova of the XIX Art., century Rukhov_chy Dz_v_nskaga of the Village Council);
b) a hut — sen_ — a kamor (a hut to an ear of the XX Art. z century Lel_kava Dz_v_nskaga of the Village Council);
c) a hut — sen_ — vary¸nya — a kamor (a hut of 1812 z century of Zavuzho¸e, a hut of 1880 — 1890 z century Habov_chy)
.

Adnosna of a tsyopla kl_mat dazvalya ў vykarysto¸vats for a buda¸n_tstv of a hut akramya tradytsyyny a materyyala ў (sasna і elk і) nesmal_styya breeds — to an aleshyn, an as_n, a poplar (century Ya¸s_mav_chy). To Lakalny buda¸n_chy pryyoma was to the vykarystayena of a pra ¸zvyadzenn_ a zruba of a hut dylya ў — split byarvyon.

Buda¸n_tstva tak_kh a zruba ў at the 2nd times skarachat a dra¸n_na expense. Sa stvat a vyal_kag of a dyyametr rab_l_ nekalk_ dylya ў ta¸shchynyoy 13 — 15 cm, Alya-place shyryn і, so that z 7 — 9 dylya ў it was possible sklasts_ ¸ves zrub. Dasledchyk_ vyluchayuts navat so zvana of Kobrynska-Malarytsk_ of a lakalna of the Russian Academy of Natural Sciences, a dza it is wide vykarysto¸val_ geta pryyom.

Vyaskovy hut ў the wood heating Kobryn

For zluchennya dylya ў vykarysto¸val_ asabl_vy kanstruktsyyu — vugat a dra¸lyanag of the lock "at Kan" ("at fingers"). Tak_ vugat May of a ¸nutra of a vyraza, yak_ya robyats to the zlucheena byarvyon bolyp tryvaly. The yak adznachayuts dasledchyk і, at Kobrynsk_m to the rayena vugat me ў skladana vyraz.

Zrub stav_l_ on "the stalemate of a vugla of a hut of a ro¸n z zyamlyoy kamyanyakh fell і" on blocks (a hut to an ear of the XX Art. z century Lel_kava), on pasta¸leny (a hut of the resident of Kan of the XIX Art. z century Ya¸s_mav_chy, a hut of a syaredz_na of the XIX Art. z century Aktsyabr). On an ear of the XX Art. sustraka¸sya ¸zho і kamenna padmurak (a hut of 1908 z century of Byarozn, a hut of 1922 z century of Zavuzho¸e).

Strekh_ kryl_ salomay, to kolasa un_z. Statystychny zvestka Kobrynsk_m paveets salomay had a pas is covered amal 100% of huts. Rab_l_ _kh a zvychayna z to prycholka a spachatka on keys, pazny on krokva; bytaval_ taksama dvukhskh_lnyya strekh_. At century Habov_chy of a zaf_ksavan a hut, at yaky fear of abap_rayetsets not on verkhn_ vyanets, and on belk і, yak_ya pakladzena on kansol_ і vystupayuts z ploskasts_ stsyana.

Svyatlo ў a hut of a traplyal praz 3 — 4 akna, sa slo ў a starazhyla ў, at kurny huts zamest an akna rab_l_ proraz at adny to the bervena, kuda ¸sta¸lyal_ shklo. (Zap_sana S. Borysam hell of a _ryna of Maysee¸na Vlasyuk, century Lel_kava.) To forgery ў hayets, an outer entrance hall і vary¸n_ chastsy for ¸syo rab_l_ gl_nab_tnay ts_ earth. To Gl_n nas_l_ on nas_lka, zagladzhval_ spetsyyalnym_ prystasavannyam_ — "to wheelchairs і" і zab_val_ molatam_. On forgery ў hayets _shlo heating the 15th vase ў gl_na, at an outer entrance hall — heating 9 (century Habov_chy). Yes it is sacred to forgery ў hayets abmazval_ sheray gl_nay, pasypal_ pyasky. At kamor, and on an ear of the XX Art. і ў hayets to forgery stal_ rab_ts z pine doshak, pakladzeny on lag_.

So at hayets could byts z doshak, pakladzeny an unakladka, uprytyk albo ў a break off (century Petsk і). On the right hell of a uvakhod was melted by the furnace. Sustrakal_sya pecha on slupa, a yak, napryklad, at century Navasyolk_. At a z_mova hour at a padpechcha trymal_ a friendly ptushka. Perad to a pechch ў stol_ matsava¸sya "posvt" z rashotkay, on yaky a garel of a luchyn.

Zleva hell of a uvakhod ў "bab_ny kuyets" matsavalasya pal_ets, on a yaky znakhodz_l_sya of a m_sk, a kuda klal_ lyzhk_ і nakryval_ to a zverkh ruchn_ky, gl_nyana posud, yak_ nabyval_ ў Kobryne on k_rmasha ts_ z a vase ў a garshechn_ka ў, yak_ya prayazdzhal_ praz to a vyosk. Here zha on pal_ets a stalemate ruchn_ky a lyazha ў і bread, yak_ pyakl_ time on tydzen. (Zap_sana І. M. Bober hell Ya¸kh_m іі M_kalaye¸na Chaley, century Aktsyabr.)

Spal_ on "zapeka", yak_ya znakhodz_l_sya for a pechcha і ¸ya¸lyal_ by Saba nasts_l z doshak, are lifted over padlogay on slupka. On "I will bake" a lyazh ў syann_k, napkhana hay ts_ salomay. Uzdo¸zh scenes stayal_ lavas. _kh rab_l_ on legs ts_ on slupka. On an ear of the XX Art. of raspa¸syudzhvayutsets of a kanapa without sp_nak, z a f_gurna vyrazanym_ to padlakotn_ka і, and a taksama of a kanapa z glukh_m_ (century Navasyolk і) ts_ bruskovym_ sp_nkam_ (century of Zavuzho¸e), raznyya pal_chk_. On a zmena to "zapeka" prykhodzyats dra¸lyanyya lozhk і, pra afarmlenn_ sp_nak yak_kh vykarysto¸val_ elements rashotk_ ts_ zroblenyya on turning to the balyas_na machine (century Navasyolk і). At residents of Kan XIX пачатку XX Art. at _nter'er of a hut z'yav_l_sya akavanyya Cufra, pafarbavanyya ў zyalyona a color.

Dz_tsyachyya lyulk_ plyal_ z neakoranay manholes. In the field nema¸lit nas_l_ ў palatnyany kalyska. Tradytsyynym_ gaspadarchym_ zbudavannyam_ byl_ klets і, sv_rna, _stopk і, vary¸n_. At vary¸n_ zakho¸val_ to an agarodn_n, bochk_ z to a cap of packs, gurka і, at kamor — the adzeena, products. Here zha znakhodz_l_sya Cufra, a flank for zernya, dzezhk_ z meat, fat, on shasets v_sel_ koshyk_-ka¸basn_k і, kumpyak_ і _nsh.

On pal_ets stayal_ badzeyk_ for cotton wool, karobk_ for berries, grybo ў і _nsh. (century Habov_chy). To hours for zakho¸vannya potatoes і a karanyaploda ў vykarysto¸val_ holes ts_ so hole crypts zvana. Aposhn_ya ¸ya¸lyal_ Saba neshta to a syarednyaa pam_zh vary¸nyoy і to crypts.

Crypt paglyblya¸sya ў zyamlyu not bolyp a yak on 1 — 1,5 m, and over _m uzvodz і ў sya zrub z 3 — 5 vyanko ў. Pam_zh stollyu і strakhy crypt stav_l_ bochk і, kadushk і, gaspadarcha _nsha belongings і to the nachyena. At a syadz_bna a complex uvakhodz_l_ a taksama of a hlyava for a zhyvyola, a barn (klunya), syann_ets, a paveets (shop), a kleets. Typova to a hla ў sklada¸sya z 2 pamyashkannya ў, yak_ya ў a pile to a charg byl_ razb_ta on adsek_ — adz_n on 6, drug_ — on 3. Varota of a zaglyblena, and ў ab 'yoma, yak_ya vystupal_ z ploskasts_ asno¸nay stsyana, zakho¸va¸sya gaspadarcha _nventar. At we tickle pamyashkann_ znakhodz_lasya a zhyvyol, at drug_m — Sena, straw. Tak_ to a hla ў zaf_ksavana ў century Rukhov_chy Dz_v_nskaga of the Village Council.

Hle ў z the farm Suchcha (heating century Habov_chy, gaspadar Raman Ramanav_ch Vakul_ch) to an uya¸lyaa Saba a two-chamber pabudova — an ulasn to a hla ў і prybudova-trystsen. Ulasna to a hla ў May of two collars ў that to a dazvalyaa padzyal_ts Iago on a dzva funktsyyanalnyya chastk_. At "чыстай" to a zone skladal_ karmas (Sena, straw і etc.), the zone for a zhyvyola a stalemate is green peragarodkam_ on mesets for Caro ў, in bulk ў, avechak, tsyalit. On the right hell of gate of "chystag" of a hlyav doshkam_ adgarodzhana kuratn_k. Prybudova-trystsen me ў the uvakhod і serve ў a yak a paveets. A mustache pamyashkann_ a hlyava are covered by one chatyrokhskh_lnay salamyanay strakhy on krokva.

Veterans mlyn at century Girsk

Barn stav_l_ ў some addalenn_ hell of a syadz_ba. At Kobrynsk_m to the rayena a barn paznachalasya to term_na "клюня". Yano swept a pramavugolny form, chatyrokhskh_lny to fear. At some klunyakh, a yak napryklad at century Gutsk і, a stalemate agulnay strakhy mel_sya vuzk_ya garyshcha for zakho¸vannya Sena і straw. Kalodzezha byl_ not on a skin syadz_ba. Davol_ it is frequent adz_n kalodzezh ў on 2 susedn_ya syadz_ba, a yak at century Aktsyabr. At the XIX Art. of a kalodzezha to hours rab_l_ vydze¸banym_ z the sutselnaga stvat a drev, pazny — zrubnyya. Navat at residents of Kan of the XIX Art. at Kobrynshchyna's vyoska, at pryvatnasts_ ў century to Pav_zza, zakhaval_sya starazhytnyya kalodzezhy-zhurava, yak_m_ karystayutsets myastsovyya zhykhara.

To 3 side vul_ets, and taksama z to a field side і hell susedzya ў syadz_ba abgarodzhval_. For getay meta vykarysto¸val_ "пляцянык" (vyosk_ Lel_kava, Zavuzho¸e), zhardzyana a raft — "zherda", and the taksama "shtakht". At Kobrynsk_m to the rayena sustrakal_sya a taksama plyatn_ z the garyzantalna spletseny a switch ў da¸zhynyoyu yes 2 — 3 m, is frequent pulled out z karenny. At stvarenn_ arkh_tekturny ensemble ў at garada, myastechka і vyoska important rolyu adygryval_ gramadsk_ya budynk і, adny z yak_kh z'ya¸lyaetsets of a karchm.

Pratatypam of a karchma z'ya¸lyalasya to a tradytsyynaa national zhyllyo. Samyya starazhytnyya z _kh skladal_sya z senets ў і shank. At trokhkamerny taverns adno to the pamyashkayena advodz_lasya a stalemate of shanks, astatn_ya sluzhyl_ zhyllyom. At a myastechka Garadzets at 1588 was the 15th tavern ў (11 p і ў ny і 4 myadovyya).

At century Velsk znakhodz_lasya a karchma to an ear of the XX Art. 3 syany ў uvakhod at kitchen, poty at a warehouse, on the right hell syany razmyashchalasya "спіжарня" (kamor), a zlev hell of syany — the krama-karchma, yaky swept ¸vakhod at a hut. Samyya raspa¸syudzhanyya vytvorchyya zbudavann_ — mlyna, on terytory_ Kobrynskaga of a rayon sustrakal_sya vadzyanyya і vetranyya. Adnakolavyya syalyansk_ya mlyna ў acts of the XVI—XVII Art. it is frequent nazyvayutsets "to Veshnyaki і". So at _nventara of 1668 of ap_svayutsets balotnyya "veshnyak і" heating Dz_v_n. At the XVIII Art. already byl_ davol_ pashyrana vetranyya mlyna. "Kozla¸k і", at yak_kh uves the case of a mlyn pavarochva¸sya suprats to wind, zakhaval_sya ў vyoska of Habov_chy і Byarozna.

Important rolyu ў argan_zatsy_ ensemble of a pasel_shch adygryval_ і memaryyalnyya znak_. Geta could byts prydarozhna of roofs ts_ akhvyarna a stone. Heating century Sla¸naye da Nasciaga to hour zakhava¸sya a stone, on yak_m vyb_ta of roofs. To Zverkh on a stone the hustka is tied.



Comments