Sapropelit - kaustobiolit a coal row, formed of the lowest plants in the conditions of the lake or lagunny mode. The died-off seaweed falling on a bottom of a stagnant reservoir, mixing up with ground silt, form sapropel. Process of carbonification turns sapropel in sapropelit.
Sapropelita (from Greek saprys - "rotten" and pelys - "silt, dirt") - the fossil coals formed as a result of transformation of the remains of the lowest plants and the elementary animal organisms in reservoirs: lakes, sea lagoons and shallow seas; are formed in the conditions of lake or lagunny fatsias, unlike the gumolit (or "humic coals") representing products of disintegration of the remains of the higher plants in the conditions of marsh fatsias. On structure, extents of decomposition and transformation of initial material allocate actually sapropelita and gumito-sapropelita. Actually sapropelita are put generally alginity. The main lithotype - a boghead. Distinguish sapropelita brown-coal, peat, coal and anthracitic metamorphism stages.
Sapropelita represent massive viscous breeds of brown, brownish-gray and black color, opaque or with a greasy luster. Classification of sapropelit is based on quantitative ratios in them sapropelic (alginita) and humic (a vitrinita, a fyuzinita and a leyptinita) microcomponents. Gumito-sapropelita - transitional differences between actually sapropelitam and saprogumolitam, are put by microcomponents of groups of an alginit (20-50%), a leyptinita (to 20%) and a vitrinita (to 75%). On distinctions in structure allocate kennel-bogheads, kasyanit-bogheads, cheremkhita. Macroscopically opaque and semi-gloss, dark brown and grayish-black color, uniform and massive, strong and viscous. Sapropelita are characterized by an exit of volatiles, higher in comparison with gumolita (55-70%, sometimes to 90%), the high content of hydrogen (7-12%), the increased warmth of combustion. In actually sapropelita lipids prevail (mainly in the form of polimerlipid) which at a metamorphism collapse, passing into migratsionnosposobny components; residual substance approaches according to the characteristic humic.
Sapropelit composes low-power interlay also lenses in layers (deposits) of the gumolit which underwent brown-coal or the initial stages of a coal stage of a metamorphism. In Russia it is known in Situated near Moscow and Irkutsk coal basins, on many brown-coal fields. Represents valuable chemical raw materials, but in connection with limitation of stocks and complexity of selective dredging it is taken seldom. From sapropelit it is possible to receive liquid fuel, and viscous sapropelita were sometimes applied as ornamental material.
From experience of other countries. As organomineralny fertilizer, sapropel it is equivalent to manure which big lack is tested by soils of our area. sapropel improves structure of the soil, thanks to the increased content of calcium promotes a raskisleniye of soils.
Long-term experience of a number of farms of the Northwest, Baltic, Belarus testifies to high efficiency of sapropels as organomineralny fertilizer. So, for example, in Latvia at introduction of 30 tons of sapropel on hectare the harvest of potatoes 60% more, than on the fields which are not fertilized by sapropel was received. At introduction of 40 tons of sapropel on hectare the harvest of cabbage and carrots respectively increased for 75% and 35%.
The largest field in the area – Velikolesskoye (stocks – 108.8 mln m ³, the largest power of thickness – 3.4 m).