Deer from averages to very large sizes treat this look. Height in shoulders — to 163 cm, body length — to 3 m, weight — to 500 kg. Forward and back extremities of approximately equal length. A nape and a sacrum at one level. The head extended with rather wide muzzle; at males the muzzle is wider, than at females. The naked space on a nose big, covers all site between nostrils and paces far back their regions. The large ears unbent forward come further preorbital gland; ear top cone-shaped, the tip is rounded. The neck is more than a third of trunk length, is covered with a mane, at males is much stronger developed, than at females. The tail is short, well, fish soup. Hoofs are big, extended, lateral — about a half of length of averages, easily concern the earth. Preorbital glands big and deep; plusnevy too big, surrounded with long hair which form the small pillow acting from surrounding fur and are lighter painted. Horns, only at males, have not less than four shoots, frequent much more. Section of horns roundish, the main trunk is dugoobrazno bent. Shoots are directed forward. Nadglaznichny shoots normally two. In the top part "bush", with bowl-shaped deepening in the middle is quite often formed
Coloring one-color or lighter on a trunk. At males in winter fur on back part of a belly a big black-brown spot. Young people — spotty. The main background of their coloring brownish and red, a bottom of a body and extremity is lighter. Drawing consists of 4 — 5 rows of spots from each party; in pelvic area the quantity of rows increases to 6 — 7. Two average rows are located along ridge from ears to a tail, between them a dark strip along ridge. Average ranks to each other approach Other strips last from plechy to the back a little. The area, for nyaty drawing, is more dark than other parts
The winter fur dense, an underfur is well expressed, coloring grayish; the summer fur is deprived of an underfur and is much shorter than winter. The underfur begins to appear at the end of July, in August the summer awn partially drops out and winter begins to grow up. Indumentum is most rare at this time. The change comes to an end by October, and the winter fur reaches full development by December. In February wear, loss of gloss and change of color is noticeable. In March — April separate hair of an awn and an underfur drop out. In May there is an intensive molt of the head and extremities. It comes to an end in June. Dumping of horns comes from January to May, clarification from skin — shortly before rutting.
Traces of a red deer oval, but a little extended; even on rather dense soil they often consist of prints of all four fingers. A trace of a female already, than at a male.
Red deer live in Latvia, Estonia, Belarus (Bialowieza Forest), in the Voronezh region (The Voronezh reserve), on the Carpathians, in mountain and forest part of the Crimea, in the Caucasus — places by all mountain and forest part, on the North — to borders of steppes, on the South — to Talysh, but are absent in steppes of east Transcaucasia. Further on the East the deer lives in Turkmenistan, in valleys of the rivers Sumbar and Chandyr. Until recently deer lived on Tedzhen and Murghab. In places they meet according to Amu-Darya and in the desert along the coast of the Aral Sea, passing to Syr-Daryyu and Sara SU. Up Amu-Darya deer reach in Tajikistan the foothills of Pamir. In Tien Shan and in adjacent mountain systems all mountain and forest area is inhabited by deer to the South to Alay and, perhaps, Zeravshansky ridge. Get even into Ridge Karatau, to the North from Tashkent. In the Tarbagatai there are no deer now. Further distribution of a deer covers all Altai, Kuznetsk Alatau, all of Sayan Mountains and all Angara Current, except for upper courses. Are found also on the ridges of Cis-Baikal. Deer are widespread in Yakutia to the North approximately to 60 °C. highway. In Transbaikalia inhabit almost all space, excepting steppe districts. Live in Yablonovy and the southern part of Stanovoy Range, across all Priamurye and in Primorsky Krai. Out of the former USSR live in the Mongolian National Republic, in China (from northeast part of the country to the Province of Yunnan in the South and on the West to east Tibet), in the Himalayas, northern India and in the basin of Tarim. Lived in the most part of Asia Minor earlier, across all Europe where remained only in places, in North Africa and on the majority of islands, adjacent to Europe. In America occupy the southern and the western Canada and the most part of the USA, except prairies and deserts.
The real red deer, is widespread on the Carpathians, in mountain part of the Crimea, Bialowieza Forest and the Voronezh reserve. Out of the former USSR it is widespread in Western Europe. The sizes averages, height in shoulders about 135 cm, a skull of 41 — 44 cm. Coloring of winter fur reddish-gray or gray, a mane usually is not more dark than a trunk, extremities are slightly more dark. The space between branches of the lower jaw is lighter than cheeks. The mirror, i.e. a light spot behind, the average sizes, gradually merging on grain with coloring of a back, from above is not bordered by dark, painted in brownish and rusty or grayish tone, ordinary divided by the dark not clear strip passing to tail top. The tail is rather long, almost equal to an ear. The top parts of hips and shoulders are more dark than other coloring of a trunk. At adults weak spottiness often remains. Horns above sometimes have the shoots dispersing a bush, the bowl is sometimes formed. Nadglaznichny shoot usually one.
The Caspian red deer, inhabits Greater Caucasus Range and Transcaucasia, Turkmenistan, the basin of the Atrek and the rivers Sumbar and Chandyr, northern Iran. The sizes are large, height in shoulders of 150 — 160 cm, a skull to 48 cm. The winter fur brownish and red, is lighter from top to bottom and turning gray. Legs, shoulders and top of back extremities of saturated grayish-brown color. The mirror is small, as at the Crimean deer; a tail — as at the last. In the summer coloring is much more pale, sometimes gryaznoserovaty. Quite often enough spottiness, especially in back part of a body is clearly expressed. Horns are massive, similar to those of the Crimean deer, but is larger, the bowl is formed seldom above, there is almost always the second nadglaznichny shoot.
The tygai deer, or hangul, lives in the basin of the river of Amu-Darya, passes through western Kizyl-Kuma to the lower current of river. Cheese Darya and on the river of Sara SU. The average sizes, height in shoulders about 140 cm, a skull about 40,5 cm. Coloring in the winter monophonic, light, sand-gray. The mirror as at two previous, but it is very poorly bordered from below, and from above absolutely merges with coloring of a back, mirrors from above are more dark than the light blednoryzhevato-ocherous Tail color, brownish All edge of an upper lip, area of nostrils and a chin whitish Along forward side of extremities a narrow brownish strip almost to hoofs the Forearm from the outer side is slightly more dark than body sides. In the summer coloring is even more pale. The tail is short, about a half of length of an ear. Horns with five shoots, but happens also to seven. The wreath above weak, from two shoots, is more rare from a sin; the bowl is sometimes formed the fact that he constantly lives in tugayakh on river valleys Is characteristic of this deer, never rising to surrounding mountains Often does big transitions but the desert.
Soiled, is the closest relative of a North American red deer — the wapiti. Together with it and a Manchurian deer forms one group, well distinguishable from all other red deer. Inhabits Tien Shan and adjacent ridges, Dzhungarsky Ala-Tau Altay, Sayan Mountains, Cis-Baikal and Transbaikalia. Very much. the large sizes, height in shoulders to 163 cm, a skull up to 46,5 cm long. Coloring in winter fur grayish and sand and brownish and sand. A neck, the bottom of a body and extremity is usually more dark than a trunk. The mirror is very big, coming on top of pelvic area, light-reddish coloring, it is sometimes partially divided by the longitudinal strip which is not reaching a tail. The tail is very short, it is no more than a half of ear length. Space between branches of the lower jaw dark, one color with cheeks. The winter fur is always more dark than summer. A neck, the bottom of a body and extremity dark, brown-brown, on a belly is impurity of blackish. At males two types of coloring: one lighter and reddish, another more dark and grayish. At the last type all dark sites are saturated dark-brown with red. Females and young people are painted more evenly, without sharp darkening on a neck, a belly and extremities. Horns are big, massive, about two orbital shoots. The top part of the main trunk, in the field of the fourth shoot, is sharply unbent back and bears several coronal shoots located one by one in one plane. They never disperse a bush and do not form a bowl. The fourth shoot — the most powerful and long.
The Manchurian deer, inhabits the basins of Amur and Ussuri, and also northern China. It is very similar to a maral. The summer fur brightly red differs in more saturated color of winter fur. A mirror in the winter reddish, in the summer brightly red, merging with coloring trunks and almost imperceptible. The sizes slightly more small, than at a maral, a muzzle already. Horns are much weaker, especially in coronal part where the two-final fork with the shoots located one by one normally develops. In Transbaikalia and the western part of the Amur basin copies of type transitional between a Manchurian deer and a maral often come across.
The most characteristic of the considered look is the mountain and strongly crossed landscape. The deer adheres to woody slopes with grassy glades; to rocky places goes seldom. At the beginning of winter often gathers in herds and wanders about absolutely open places. In the summer sometimes leaves in the Alpine meadows. Lives also on extensive peat bogs and absolutely avoids big continuous forest spaces. Prefers the mixed woods, especially with an oak, an aspen and a birch. In the winter at deep snow gets into thickets where snow not so freezes together. In big frosts deer lie, closely getting off. Deep snow — one of the worst enemies of deer. At a long mnogosnezh cases of their death are frequent. In the spring, from the beginning of thawing of snow, deer begin to come to open places, to be fed on thawed patches. In May there are movements from lowlands to mountainous areas.
Prior to rutting the deer conducts nomadic life. Females with calfs and two-year-old keep together, more adults single make separate groups. Old bulls live alone. The largest herds are formed of females with young people, the old female is at the head of them. By the time of rutting of herd break up. Stelny females retire in the spring. Bulls live with herd during the winter. Dumping of horns at old takes place in January — February. Young people go with horns sometimes till May. In the summer often get into water, escaping from insects.
The roar begins sometimes since the end of August, is most intensive in September, comes to an end in October. Young people chase after old. Males come to the excited state before the beginning of rutting. They come to glades, beat the earth with horns and hoofs, mark time, beating out currents to 6 — 8 m. In the beginning roar a little — at night and at dawn, then the roar amplifies, and in the second half of September roar almost day and night. Old males are grazed with 5 — 6, sometimes with 10 females. Fights between males are frequent. They continuously search for females who usually run on a roar of a bull. Males are extremely excited, the neck bulks up, eyes are poured by blood, eat a little, exude very pungent smell. Pregnancy continues 249 — 269 days. Otel occurs in the second half of May and June, at young people is later, than at old. Females in a thicket, in bushes and a vysokotravya, Telitsya by one calf, is more rare — two. Two-three days mother all the time are about a calf. Then he begins to hide. The female takes away the enemy and often rushes even on large predators. In a week the calf already starts going gradually for mother to pasturage. Calfs till the rutting period suck. Females telitsya for the first time on the third year, males become prolific on the fourth.
In the fall the deer eats beechen, pine and other nuts, acorns, apples, pears, a horsetail and mushrooms. From tree species prefers an aspen, a maple, a linden, a birch, an oak and willows. Eats also acorns and nuts, wood bark, a moss and lichens in the winter. Eats branches, bark, the kidneys, a moss and lichens, mushrooms growing on trees, a dry grass in the spring. In the Caucasus in a large number eats blackberry leaves. In the summer the main forage consists of herbs, especially forest and marsh. The considerable percent in summer sterns is made by berries: raspberry, blackberry, wild grapes, aktinidiya. Visits solonetzic soils all the year round, but especially in the spring and in the summer breaks off snow in the Winter to reach salt. At cultivation in maralnik the fodder diet develops of 50% of wood forages (bark, escapes, leaves) and 50% of grassy plants; in the winter the products containing protein — grain, nuts are necessary. Drinks water in a large number, but only pure. Swallows of snow and ice in the winter.
The deer and at dawn is grazed mainly in the evening, but sometimes roams all night long; in the summer lies in the afternoon, rises usually only in cloudy weather. From a rain mostly disappears in a thicket. In hot time keeps in shady places. In the winter males lay down on open places, females — in thickets. The voice of a male at the beginning of rutting is similar to the hissing groan. Gradually it amplifies and resembles a roar of a domestic bull, but with high peculiar notes, very loud, audible on 6 — 7 km. The female calling a calf publishes silent low. The voice of a calf consists of very short and gentle sounds reminding peep. Sight, hearing and sense of smell are very strongly developed.
The most terrible enemy of deer — a wolf, especially in the winter, at a mnogosnezhya when deer move hardly, stick, peel legs about a crust. At very deep snow they become almost helpless. Other predators harm deer much less; adults are pursued by bears and large cats — a leopard, a tiger. Young people perish from all predators, except the smallest. Very much gadflies, mosquitoes, midges and gadflies, in the Far East — pincers disturb deer. From diseases of deer the anthrax, an inflammation of a liver, a ponosa, a pulmonary disease similar to tuberculosis, and also the diseases close to a scurvy, and a foot-and-mouth disease are known.