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Fauna

SMALL PODORLIK AQUILA POMARINA C.L.BREHM, 1831 ARE SMALL THE EAGLE RUG, ARE SMALL PADVORLIK

Number and tendency of its change:
In the past and now it is brought in domestic literature as the usual nesting look. In the 1970th when mass shooting of birds of prey, its number practiced, perhaps, decreased a little, however reliable data are absent. By results of the accounting of 1999-2002 small podorlik is the most usual of rare species of birds of prey of Belarus now and its population is in a stable state. Its number is estimated at 3200-3800 couples that makes more than 30% of world population of the European subspecies. In optimum habitats 1,1 couples / 10 sq.km reach nesting density, local maximum density is noted in Bialowieza Forest (the natural boundary Wild Nikor) - 1,9 couples / 10 by sq.km.

Habitats:
- high-age woods
- Republic of Belarus: the reclaimed farmland
- Republic of Belarus: farmland
- Republic of Belarus: bogs

Major factors of threat:
- reduction of the area of haymakings
- development of floodplains of the rivers
- development of territories of the abandoned reclaimed farmland
- illegal shooting
- rejuvenation of the woods
- replacement of various natural forest stands
- concerns during nesting
- predatoriness of a forest marten

Protection measures:
The look is included in the Red List of Republic of Belarus since 1993. Around the izvestyony nests taken under protection in the Vitebsk region security zones with a radius of 50-250 m are allocated. More strict observance of the nature protection modes and the accounting of recommendations when carrying out agricultural and silvicultural works in look habitats is necessary. In sites with deficiency of the trees suitable for nesting, the good result is yielded by attraction of a small podorlik on nesting by means of construction of artificial gnezdoviya.

Description of a look:
The smallest representative of the sort Aquila (length of a body of 62-68 cm, wingspan of 145-165 cm, weight is up to 1,8 kg). Hardly differs from a big podorlik (with whom besides quite often forms hybrids), and some age forms of a steppe eagle. A large bird with in proportion long and wide wings which ends overhang during soaring often a little down. The top covered, as a rule, more rounded shape, than at a big podorlik, because of shorter paramount swing feathers. Coloring dark brown with more lucid mind, the top and lower covering covered, having an obvious yellowish or reddish shade and contrasting with black swing. On wings roundish light spots at the basis paramount swing, on a nadkhvostya also light spot from above are well noticeable. Eyes are amber-yellow that never happens at a big podorlik. At young birds the general tone of plumage is a little more dark and on its background all light spots are allocated more brightly, than at adults. On a nape they have a species-specific bright red spot, and on the ends one-two rows of small light tear-shaped spots covering a wing. Quite often the hybrid individuals combining signs of big and small podorlik meet probably.

Distribution:
The nominative subspecies having rather narrow area in a middle part of Europe live in Belarus. Earlier was considered that through Belarus there passes the eastern frontier of its distribution. Now these subspecies meet from east areas of Germany in the West to the Ivanovo Region of Russia in the east, and from Greece in the south to the Leningrad Region of Russia in the north. In Belarus small podorlik it is widespread in all territory, except for treeless and most hozyaystvenno the developed areas. The main places of winterings are in savannas of east and southern parts of Africa.

Biology:
Nesting flying and tranzitno the migrating look. In the south of Belarus arrives to places of nesting in the last dates of March - the first of April, in the north a bit later. Mass flight takes place during the 2nd - the 3rd decades of April. Builds nests itself or occupies old nests of the buzzard, a teterevyatnik, a black stork. Places them in 50 - 800 m from open spaces on a fir-tree, an alder, an oak, a birch, an ash-tree, a pine or an aspen. The laying appears in the last days of April - the beginning of May 64,1 - 50,3 mm, as a rule, consist of two eggs the sizes on average. Nasizhivaniye lasts about 42 days. Baby birds hatch at the beginning - the middle of June. In the presence in a nest of two baby birds one of them usually perishes within the first week of life. Sletki is abandoned by nests at the end of July - the first half of August. The basis of food of a podorlik is made by amphibious and mouse-like rodents, birds and reptiles meet less often. Mass flying away takes place in the 2nd decade of September.

Article from the Red List of RB


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