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Fauna

RESTLESS MILLERBIRD OF ACROCEPHALUS PALUDICOLA LINNAEUS, 1758 VYARTLYAVAYA CHARATSYANKA

Number and tendency of its change:
ChV the end 19 - the beginning of 20 century number was quickly reduced. The look disappeared at least in 8 European countries. The European population totals 13-21 thousand singing males, with the largest populations in Belarus, Ukraine and Poland. Number in Europe continues to decrease and considerably fluctuates. Now the number of the Belarusian population of a restless millerbird makes 6–12 thousand singing males (about 50% of world population) and strongly fluctuates depending on various factors from year to year. About 90% of the Belarusian population live on 3 bogs: Zvanets, Sporovsky and Wild.

Habitats:
- lowlands sedge gipnovych open bogs

Major factors of threat:
- violations of the hydrological mode of bogs
- overgrowing of open bogs bushes
- overgrowing of open bogs reed
- a spring burning out of vegetation at low water level

Protection measures:
The look is included in the Red List of Republic of Belarus since 1993. The international memorandum and the action plan for preservation of a look within an area is signed. Management plans are developed and are realized by 3 main habitats: bogs Zvanets, Sporovsky and Wild. The main actions of plans are: optimization of the hydrological mode, prevention of overgrowing of open bogs bushes and reeds. Performance of all actions listed in the international memorandum and the action plan for preservation of a look.

Description of a look:
Small species of millerbirds. The barsuchka on the head differs in three ochroleucous strips from a similar species of a millerbird. On a breast the dark pestrina which were more expressed on each side. On a back the dark, accurately expressed longitudinal pestrina. Males are active mainly in the evening. The most often repeated sounds in the song: errr-didid, Ayr-du-du-du. Sing, sitting on a grass or single bushes, it is frequent in characteristic current flight.

Distribution:
Lives only on open sedge gipnovykh low-lying bogs. The modern area is substantially fragmented and stretches in middle latitudes of the western Palearktika between 47 ° and 59o a northern latitude. Nests in Belarus, Hungary, Germany, Lithuania, Poland, Russia and Ukraine. The center of a modern area is Polesia Lowland. Stable groups are noted on bogs Zvanets, Sporovskoye, Wild, by Servech. On other bogs in Ivatsevichskom, Stolinsk, Pinsk, Svislochsky and Lidsky districts meets irregularly and in a small number. Migrates in the western direction along the Baltic coast, on the coast of the North Sea and turns in the southern direction along the Atlantic coast of France. The main places of winterings are in the western Africa to the south of the Sahara Desert.

Biology:
The rare nesting, flying species. Appear at the end of April in the spring - the beginning of May, fly away in August. The system of reproduction, unique for sparrow birds, which can be considered as a kind of promiscuity is characteristic of a restless millerbird. Social contacts between males and females are reduced only to copulation, and all weight of education of posterity lays down on females, beginning from construction of a nest and finishing with feeding of baby birds and ingots. Females copulate often with several males. Existence of 2 layings during the reproduction season is for the sake of appearances characteristic. Nests are usually located on the earth and from above are disguised by old leaves of a sedge. On sites with the increased efficiency local groups of nests are formed. Duration of a nasizhivaniye makes 12-14 days. The Ptentsovy period, the most long among all studied types of these sort, makes 15-16 days.

Article from the Red List of RB


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