NOCHNITSA NATTERERA, or RESNITChATAYa MYOTIS NATTERERI (KUHI, 1817) of NAChNITsA NATERERA, ABO RASNIChASTAYa
Number and tendency of its change:
It is noted in rather small territory where number on winterings low.
It is included in the Red List of Belarus since 1993. According to the Provision on hunting for illegal destruction the penalty is provided of 3 basic sizes for one individual. Summer habitats remain in suburban, selitebny districts of National park "Bialowieza Forest", in the landscape wildlife area "Pribuzhsky Polesia" (Brestyosky district). Winter biotopes - in the wildlife area of "Barbastell" (The Brest district). Preservation traditional selitebno - agro-forest landscapes is necessary. Minimization of presence of people at basements of old fortifications, locks and temples and technical measures for stabilization of a microclimate where winterings of individuals are found; giving of the official status of protection to places of regular group winterings and carrying out specialized biotechnical actions: purposeful preservation of old forest stands, including installation of artificial support for dry forest stands where summer dwellings of groups of individuals are revealed. Whenever possible cutting of boughs and branches near duplovy openings for the purpose of elimination prisad for predators. Preventive sealing and installation of "hedgehogs" from a steel wire on nesting boxes and duplyanka during the spring and summer period where dwelling of group of individuals is revealed.
- broad-leaved woods
- the mixed woods
- winter: anthropogenous landscape
- summer: selitebny rural landscape
Major factors of threat:
- lack of optimum habitats
- losses of small animals in half-ruined farms and other places of wintering
- a press from a gray neyasyta, forty and predators
- deterioration in food supply in connection with large-scale decrease in traditional animal husbandry
Description of a look:
The sizes are average. Length of a body is 41-55 mm, a tail of 34-46 mm, an ear of 14-18,5 mm, a forearm of 35-44 mm, wingspan of 220-275 mm, mass of 5-14 g. The back is light-brown, a paunch light gray, almost white. Rather wide wings of dark-brown color. The tail is rather long. The spur is very long, S-shaped. Between the ends of spurs and the end of a tail there is a reinforced roller. On this roller rigid curved shchetinka, or "eyelashes" densely sit. Each "eyelash" about 1 mm long, their total number more than 300. Ears are rather big, on the ends are rounded off. Trestles are long, narrow and pointed, on length they make 2/3 ears.
Distribution. The area of a nochnitsa of Natterer covers all territory of Europe (excepting Scandinavia and the Iberian Peninsula), northwest Africa and reaches through the Middle East and the Caucasus the Iranian Plateau. Separate finds are known from Central Asia, Siberia and Japan. The look is rare on the most part of the area. In Belarus the reproduction established fact is noted at the beginning of 20 century and in 1956 in Bialowieza Forest, in 1958 in the same place, in 1995-2003 single individuals are caught in Pruzhansky, Kamenetsky, Brest, Drogichinsky districts. In 1998-2003 7 maternal colonies are revealed in the Brest, Kamenetsky, Kobrin, Drogichinsky districts.
Biology. The rare breeding, settled species. In May-June small are formed, maternal colonies which settle in hollows of trees, in external elements of constructions of the person, sometimes - in bird's lodges are more often to 10 adult females. Are inclined to settle on suburbs of settlements of the person in old gardens (hollows of pears, apple-trees, a pseudo-acacia robiniya). In colonies of females polovozrely males occasionally meet though the last generally keep separately. Favourite hollows borrow from spring to September annually. Pairing is observed at the end of summer. In September-November appear in places of winterings, but actively continue to be fed in December and later. Summer and winter habitats are from each other at distance of several kilometers. From the second half of the 1990th regular winterings in constructions of the person are registered. Winter in semibasement and basement constructions (cellars and casemates) at air temperature 3-6o With and high relative humidity of air. At a strong cold snap in winter shelters seeks to take root into zimovalny "clusters" or to nestle on separately wintering individuals of other types: to shirokoushka, ushana, other types of nochnitsa. Are inclined to settle on wintering in cracks of concrete ceilings of the become empty farms and similar constructions where in considerable number freeze. Seasonal change of places of feeding is characteristic. In the spring and it is selitebny places, suburbs of fields, forest pastures in the summer, and in the fall - in the wood. Individual sites of getting of a forage are usually expressed, from places of day's rests seldom moves away more than on 5 km. Eats flies, butterflies, spiders. Actively catches production not only in air, but also collects (pinches) it from leaves, a grass, water. Spiders in its food make up to 40%. Live till 17,5 years. Considerable losses from predatoriness and high level (to 40% of adult individuals) traumatism are noted.
Article from the Red List of RB