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Fauna

ZMEEYAD CIRCAETUS GALLICUS (GMELIN, 1788) OF AROL-VUZHAED, ZMEYAED

Number and tendency of its change:
Till 1960th zmeeyad was considered as a widespread and frequent look in the south of Belarus. The opinion on a rarity of a zmeeyad and even reduction of its number which arose subsequently, partly, probably, was based on a rarity of a zmeeyad in more studied Vitebsk Region where density of nesting of a look made 0,1-0,2 couples on 100 sq.km. By results of the accounting of 1998-2002, zmeeyad is a usual look in the southern and southeast parts of Belarus where its number is estimated at 400-450 couples. The greatest density nesting reaches in large marsh massifs of a right bank of the river Pripyat - from 4,0 to 5,6 couples / 100 sq.km. In the north of Belarus its number is stable and is estimated at 50-70 couples. Total number of the Belarusian population makes 530-700 couples, or 6% of the European population of a look. It is necessary to consider that in the countries, adjacent to Belarus, the number of a zmeeyad is extremely low and continues to decrease.



Habitats:
- Republic of Belarus: leso-marsh complexes
- Republic of Belarus: the developed peat bogs
- Republic of Belarus: mezotrofny bogs
- Republic of Belarus: boggy ashes
- Republic of Belarus: dry heathlands
- Republic of Belarus: the reclaimed farmland
- Republic of Belarus: woods
- Republic of Belarus: large rivers

Major factors of threat:
- development of riding bogs for extraction of peat
- the fires on riding and transitional bogs
- injurious activity of a raven
- illegal shooting
- concern of birds

Protection measures:
The look is included in the Red List of Republic of Belarus since 1981. Creation of a network of wildlife areas in territories with the maximum density of nesting of groups of a zmeeyad, construction of artificial gnezdoviya on bogs where on suburbs the pine forest bagulnikovy is cut down is expedient (the zaselyaemost makes 25%). Also control over the fires on bogs and broad promotion of protection of snakes is necessary.

Description of a look:
Large feathery predator, with a length of body of 62-67 cm, about 180-190 cm in wingspan, weighing about 2 kg. Females are a little larger than males. Shape reminds very large lunya a little. Differs from smaller buzzards and osoyed in larger head. Body top grayish-brown, a bottom white with rare dark pestrina, a throat and a craw dark, wings and a tail striped. Young individuals more dark.

Distribution:
The nominative subspecies are widespread in northern part of Africa, in the Southern and Eastern Europe, Asia and Central Asia. In Belarus meets almost in all territory. Is absent along the western frontier, and also in densely inhabited hilly areas in the south of Grodno, in the center and in the north of the Minsk and Mogilev regions. It is most usual in Pripyat Polesia. Winterings of a zmeeyad from the western part of a nested area are localized in Africa, from east - as well in the southern and southwest parts of Asia.

Biology:
Nesting flying and tranzitno the migrating look. The first birds appear in the south of Belarus in the third decade of March, in the north in the first decade of April. The earliest date of an arrival of zmeeyad is registered 22.3.1995 in Hoyniksky district. Irrespective of terms of appearance of the first birds, mass flight in the south of the country, as a rule, takes place during the period from April 5 to April 15. In the center and in the north of flying birds it is possible to observe up to the first of May. Tokovany and pair flights over nested sites were observed since April 9 to Polesia and since April 15-19 in Poozerye. Nests diameter on average of 65 cm are under construction in the top verticil of kroner of pines at the height of 6-17 m. The tray of a nest is always covered by green branches of a pine and birch, in the north - also ate. To Polesia the otkladka of eggs begins with the middle of April (the earliest - on April 12 in Stolinsky district), in Poozerye - since the end of April - the beginning of May. In a full laying always only 1 egg with average sizes of 73,8 × 57,5 mm. Nasizhivaniye lasts 45-47 days, baby birds appear at the beginning - the middle of June. Sletki is abandoned by nests at the end of July - the beginning of August. In food of a zmeeyad in Poozerye snakes dominate (a viper and). Transfers the caught snakes half having swallowed so the part of a snake hangs down from a beak. It is single in a diet mammals (a hedgehog, a mole), birds (a baby bird of a black grouse) and an amphibian (a gray toad) meet. Autumn flight takes place since the end of August on the end of September. The latest meeting of a zmeeyad in Belarus was 21.9.2000 on a bog Zvanets (Drogichinsky district).

Article from the Red List of RB


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