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Fauna

BLACK STORK OF CICONIA NIGRA (LINNAEUS, 1758) OF CHORNA BUSEL

Number and tendency of its change:
Since the end of 19 century the look is described in literature as not numerous or rare, though widespread, especially in the south of Belarus. In the first edition of the Red List of Belarus the black stork is carried to types which number is reduced catastrophically quickly. Since the beginning of the 1980th years in many regions and in general across Belarus growth of number of a look and its stabilization is registered. According to biographical accounts 1985, 1987 and 1989 the highest density of nesting is noted in the southwest of Belarus - in the Brest Region (2,7 couples / 100 by sq.km of the woods), average - in Gomel (1,4), Grodno (1,3) and the Minsk (1,3) Regions, and low - in Mogilev (0,9) and Vitebsk (0,6 couples / 100 in sq.km of the woods). According to other data, only in the Vitebsk Region nesting of 250-300 couples is supposed what several times exceeds biographical particulars. Now the number of a black stork in Belarus is estimated at 950-1300 couples that makes not less than 15% of world population of a look. Density of nesting averages across Belarus 1,4 couples / 100 sq.km of the area covered with the wood. Increase in number is connected in recent years with strengthening of protection of a look, improvement of nested and fodder conditions (increase in woodiness of the territory, increase in extent of small water currents as a result of melioration, growth of number and the area of fish farms, reservoirs), change of behavior of the bird who was earlier very negative to the neighbourhood with the person.

Habitats:
- Republic of Belarus: damp woods
- Republic of Belarus: artificial reservoirs
- Republic of Belarus: near settlements of the person

Major factors of threat:
- cutting down of the old woods
- destruction of nests at continuous cabins
- concern during nesting
- illegal shooting of birds
- remoistening of habitats

Protection measures:
The look is included in the Red List of Republic of Belarus since 1981. Protection of places of nesting. Allocation of security zones with a radius up to 250 m around the known nests. When carrying out cabins it is necessary to keep separate trees or their groups in territories, perspective for nesting. Attraction on nesting by means of construction of artificial gnezdoviya is expedient. Carrying out periodic (at least, than time in 5 years) the national accounting of number for the purpose of control over a condition of population, and also promoting of protection of a look is necessary.

Description of a look:
The second-large representative of group and family in Belarus who is slightly conceding by the sizes to a white stork. Large (up to 100 cm long, weighing up to 3 kg) a bird with a long neck and legs. In flight the neck is extended. Coloring of plumage black with metal gloss, white only a belly and a podkhvostya. A beak and legs red, at young people olive.



Distribution:
The broken-off area stretches through all Eurasia, locally in the southern part of Africa. The black stork nests in Belarus in all territory except for treeless and most hozyaystvenno the developed areas. Places of winterings are located in Africa.

Biology:
Nesting flying and tranzitno the migrating look. Arrives at the end of March - April. Builds nests in kroner of old trees at the height from 3,5 to 26 m. Reliable distinctions concerning the choice of breed of a tree for the nest device between northern (in the Vitebsk Region the pine prevails) and southern (the oak prevails) regions of Belarus are revealed that is probably connected with distinctions in specific structure of the woods of these territories. Nesting cases on a haystack, on the earth, floorings for the beehives located on trees are described. Also occupies special artificial platforms. A nest from branches, the tray is covered by a dry grass, pieces of the turf, sometimes a moss with impurity of leaves and wool. The nest is used for a number of years, sometimes with breaks, constantly completed and can reach the considerable sizes. One couple can have on 2 nests at distance 150-1000 m one from another and occupy them serially. In a laying from 2 to 6 white eggs. Average sizes of eggs of 65,3 - 47,2 mm. Edges of an inhabited nest and a forest laying under it always limy-white from excrement. It differs in it from nests of birds of prey. Nasizhivat both birds of 32-38 days. Baby birds finally leave a nest for 70-75 days. It is fed mainly with fish, more rare amphibious and invertebrate. Autumn migration begins since the end of July and takes place till September.



Article from the Red List of RB


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