Kobryn or Kobrin
|Flag||Coat of arms|
|Coordinates||52 °13′00 ″ NL 24 °22′00 ″ EL (G) (Ya)|
|Chairman of district executive committee||Zozulya, Alexander Ivanovich|
|Area||26 km ²|
|NUM height||147 m|
|Climate type||moderate and continental|
|Population||▲ 52 001 persons (2013)|
|National structure||Belarusians, Russians, Ukrainians|
|Confessional structure||Orthodox Christians, Catholics, Baptists|
|Etnokhoronim|| to the kobrinchena
|Telephone code||+375 (1642)|
|Postal indexes||225301—225306, 225860|
|The Magdebourg right with||1589|
|Rivers and canals||Mukhavets, Dnieper and Bugsky channel, channel of the Check|
Kobryn or Kobrin
(Belarusian: Ко́брын, pronounced [ˈkɔbrɨn]; Ukrainian: Кобринь; Russian: Ко́брин; Yiddish: קאברין; Polish: Kobryń) is a city in the Brest voblast of Belarus and the center of the Kobryn Raion. The fourth by the number of the population the city in the area (concedes to Brest, Baranovichi and Pinsk), in 2009 the population of the city made 51 166 people.
Geography and Transport
The city is located in the west of Polesia on flat river banks Mukhavets in the place of her connection with the Dnieper and Bugsky channel, in 41 km to the East from Brest.
Kobrin is important knot of the motor transport. Through the city pass Highway M1 (Brest — Moscow), being part of European Route E 30 and a Pan-European transport corridor II Berlin — Nizhny Novgorod, M12 (Kobrin — border of Ukraine (Mokrana); part of European Route E 85), and also Highway M10 (Kobrin — Gomel) connecting among themselves the regional centers of Polesia. Besides, through the city there pass republican roads of P2 (part of the old road Brest — Moscow from Columns to Kobrin) and P102 (border of Poland — High — Kamenets — Kobrin).
Value of the city from the point of view of railway transport is not so big as settling down on the line of the Polesia railroads of Zhabink — Gomel, the station Kobrin is not nodal. The city public transport is presented by buses (16 routes) and a share taxi. The standard of service for city transportations without buses of individual entrepreneurs more than 1 bus on 2 000 people is exceeded for 16%. After a state for October, 2009 three automobile bridges — in the center, in the western part, and in east part, and also the railway bridge through the river Mukhavets work in the city. In 2009 the staff of the Pinsky center of Republican group of a special purpose of the Ministry of Emergency Situations demolished the bridge of post-war construction 42 m long (it was used initially as railway, it was converted into automobile). A row began construction of the new bridge (the same year the new bridge was open). In the territory of the city 6 gas stations are located.
As the legend testifies, the city was founded in 11-12 centuries by the descendant of the Kiev prince Izyasyalava on the place of the fishing settlement on the island formed by river of Kobrink at its falling into Mukhavets. For the first time Kobrin is mentioned in the Ipatyevsky chronicle under 1287. At that time its lands were included into the Vladimir and Volynsk principality, From the 1st half of 14 century Kobrin as a part of Grand Duchy of Lithuania, in 1404 - 1519 the center of the Kobrin principality which resulted from the section of possession of the prince Fyodor Ratnensky (the son of the grand duke Lithuanian Olgerd) between his sons Sangushka and Roman, Kobrin was transferred "for feeding" to lifelong use to the Polish queens Bon, Anna Yagellonka and Constantius Avstriyachke. In 1589 acquired the Magdebourg right and the coat of arms — a board with the image of the Mother of God and Saint Anna. In 16-18 centuries was the center of Kobrin economy. In the middle of 17 century in Kobrin about 1700 inhabitants, about 500 houses. In the 2nd half of 17 century. the city was destroyed by wars, devastated epidemics and the fires. Brought into decline, it in 1766 was deprived of city self-government.
With 1795 Mr. Kobrin as a part of the Russian Empire, the district city of Slonimsna, then the Lithuanian province. In 1795 the manor the Kobrin Key with the estate is presented by Catherine II to A. V. Suvorov. In the 1790th in the city more than 2 thousand people, over 300 houses. With 1801 Mr. Kobrin — the district city of the Grodno province. 15.7.1812 there was a fight in which the first considerable victory of the Russian troops in Patriotic war of 1812 was won. In 1912 in the city the monument of the Victory of 1812 is open. In 1813 in Kobrin there were Irkutsk Hussars in which the young cornet A.S. Griboyedov served. During war of 1812 in Kobrin 548 houses from 630 burned down.
In 1846 construction of the highway Moscow — Warsaw which passed through Kobrin is complete. At the beginning of the 1880th but its northern suburb there passed the railroad. According to census of 1897, in the city of 10 355 inhabitants, about 30 small industrial enterprises (157 workers). During revolution of 1905-07 there took place demonstrations and strikes here. In 1905 the Kobrin committee of the All-Russian union of railroad workers worked. In 1914 in the city of 25 small industrial enterprises (72 workers). In 1915 Mr. Kobrin occupied kayzerovsky, in 1919 — troops of a bourgeois Wormwood. It was released by Red Army of 30.7.1920 g on July 31 the district revolutionary-military committee operating till September 13 is created. According to the Riga peace treaty, the city departed to Poland as the center of a povet of the Polesia voivodeship (1921-39). The economic crisis and chronic unemployment caused mass emigration of inhabitants abroad. Kobrin's workers and a poveta combated for social and national release. Headed performances of workers regional committee of KPZB.
After reunion of the Western Belarus with BSSR (1939) Kobrin as a part of the Brest region, from 15.1.1940 g the center of the area. 23.6.1941 the city was occupied by fascist aggressors. Fight against invaders underground district committees of KP(b)B (November 1943-19.7.1944) and LKSMB (1.9.1943-19.7.1944) directed. Fascists destroyed 6900 civilians in Kobrin. 20.7.1944 the city is freed from fascist invaders.
Planning and Kobrin's building have centuries-old history. At the place of falling of river of Kobrinki into Mukhavets the first strengthening on which Top and Nizhny Novgorod locks were constructed later was in the ancient time put. Exact date a construction of locks is unknown. As materials of audit of 1597 testify, at this time they fell into decay. The top lock was enclosed with stone walls with many-tier wooden towers, Nizhny Novgorod — a ditch and shaft. Locks connected a drawbridge. The remains of a castle ditch remained. On the Earth's surface fragments of the ceramics relating to 12-13 centuries are found. Near the lock, in the territory of the former posad, at a depth of 1,5-2 m the remains of the ancient street from logs are found.
To the West from locks about 1497 the last Kobrin prince built the Spassky monastery (one building remained). The city was built up from the East on the West parallel to Mukhavtsu. The wide floodplain of the river divided its pas 2 parts. According to 1563 given to audit, on the left coast there were 5 streets, the market square and a town hall (did not remain), on right — 2 streets.
At the end of 18 century and in 19 century the downtown was built up with brick two floor houses which first floors were allocated under shops and workshops. At this time Kobrin was the recovered shopping center where several fairs in a year were held. The considerable part of a market square was occupied by one-storeyed malls (remained partially). Architecture monuments remained: St. Nicholas Church, Spassky monastery, post station, etc.
For years of the Great Patriotic War Kobrin lost about 30% of housing stock. In the first post-war years of the street were built up with one-storeyed, mainly wooden houses cottages.
Modern Kobrin is divided river Mukhavets into the southern and northern planning areas. The public center — Lenin Square which ensemble form the building of the Executive Committee of the City Soviet of People's Deputies, hotel, houses. There is a Military and historical museum of A. V. Suvorov. The monument to V. I. Lenin, before the museum building to A. V. Suvorov, on Pervomayskaya St. in the square of V. P. Puganov — a monument on a mass grave of the Soviet soldiers is placed into the square. In the square on Lenin St. the monument in honor the 40 anniversary of the Victory of the Soviet people in the Great Patriotic War, on the suburb of the city — a monument to Komsomol members demolition men, heroes of "rail war" is established.
Reconstruction of the central part of the city began in the 1950th. Multi-storey buildings are built on streets Soviet, Lenin, Suvorov, Pushkin, Dzerzhinsky, etc. In 1959 in the city there were 13,7 thousand inhabitants. In 1970 — 24.9 thousand inhabitants. From March, 1963 to 2002 the city of regional submission.
On September 18-19, 2009 in the city the republican festival fair of toilers of the village "Dozhinki-2009" took place. For preparation for so large-scale action about 400 billion rubles (about 144 million dollars) were allocated for reconstruction of city infrastructure and building of new "dozhinochny" objects.
190 houses, 7 schools, 126 km of streets were repaired, the 850-meter embankment, the ice arena, an aquapark, palace of culture, the rowing channel, an amphitheater in Suvorov's park and other objects is built. About 2 thousand builders from the different cities of Belarus were engaged in reconstruction of the city.
During a festival fair the total length of malls made more than 7 km. The services offered over 250 trade enterprises, public caterings and consumer services. Not less than 1200 people took part in sports and mass actions.
In 1817 the population of the city made 1 427 people, and 899 of them were Jews. According to the first All-Russian census of 1897, the population of the city made 10 408 people (5 336 women and 5 072 men), from them 6 738 persons were Jews and 2 971 — Orthodox Christians.
By 1907 the population decreased to 8 754 that is connected first of all with emigration to the USA and other countries. The population of the city practically did not grow in the first half of the 20th century and made about 11 thousand people in 1956. In the second half of the century rapid growth of the city begins, and by 1991 population made 49 400 people (26 300 in 1972). In 2008 the population of the city made 50 900 people.
According to all-republican population census of 2009 51 166 people, from them 23 755 (46,43%) men and 27 411 (53,57%) women lived in Kobrin.
In total in Kobrin district more than 20 industrial enterprises, the vast majority of which is located in the city of Kobrin, function. Growth rate of outputs for January-February, 2009 made 97,3% (the forecast — 117,5%) in relation to the corresponding period of 2008. Such lag of growth rates of industrial production from expected is probably connected with consequences of a world economic crisis.
The area is rich with minerals, in particular clay, loams, construction sand, sapropelyyu, peat, yantaryom and phosphorites. The largest field of clay — Podzemenskoye. Stocks of the Velikolessky field of agrochemical raw materials (sapropels) are estimated at 108,8 million m3. Partially in the territory of the area there is the largest field of peat — Kobrinsko-Pruzhansko-Gantsevichskoye which zatorfirovannost of the territory makes 23%. Near the village of Demidovshchina there is a big field of clay which will last for 100 years by annual production of 30 million pieces of a brick in a year.
In the area on the lake of Svinoreyk there are reserves of excellent sapropelic dirt of 0,5 million m3. Brown coal is revealed in continental neogenovy deposits.
JSC Kobrin Cannery;
JSC Kobrin-Dizayn (release of joiner's products: windows, doors etc.);
"Kobrin Bakery" branch RUPP "Brestkhlebprom";
RUP "Kobrin sewing firm "Lona";
JSC Kobrin Butter and Cheese-making Plant;
JSC Kobrin Meat-processing Plant;
RUPP "Kobrin tool plant "SITOMO";
JSC Kobrinagromash (official dealer of the Minsk tractor plant);
IP Industrial Alliance (release of joiner's and shod products);
RUPP "Kobrin spinning weaving mill "Ruchayka" (production of mixed technical fabrics and yarn of weaver's and knitted appointment);
JSC Kobrin Plant of Hydraulic Mechanical Engineering (JSC Hydromash; production of hydraulic cylinders);
To GOAL "Kobrin skilled forestry" (production of pilolesomaterial);
JSC Kobrin Himik (production of lacquer paints, garments, rape oil, production swept);
JV SOOO PP Polesye (production of children's toys from plastic).
SOOO "Fleksopak Plus" (production of polyethylene packing);
JV LLC Kolor (production of water and dispersive, acrylic materials, decorative plasters);
LLC Tekstiltorg (production of pillows, blankets, soft toys under the Entertainment trademark);
CJSC Optimalservice (design and construction of systems of gas supply, water supply and sewerage);
IOOO "Langkhaynrikh Konfektsion Is White" (tailoring of cloths, napkins, bed sets);
LLC Betoplast (production of forms for production of fences, fountains, biosewerages).
The following establishments of vocational training work in the city:
"Kobrin state professional college of builders";
"Kobrin state art professional college";
"Kobrin state professional lyceum of services industry".
In the city 8 high comprehensive schools, a gymnasium, boarding school for hearing-impaired children, school orphanage work.
Among establishments of specialized training work:
The center of the correctional developing training and rehabilitation;
Center of children's creativity (house of creativity of young);
Ecological and biological center of children and youth (station of young naturalists);
Center of technical creativity of pupils;
Sports school of the Olympic reserve (KSDYuShOR);
Also in the city 13 kindergartens work.
Suvorov's estate (modern house museum of Suvorov).
Spassky monastery (second half of the 18th century).
Monument in honor of the first large victory of the Russian army over Napoleon on July 27, 1812.
Park of Suvorov (1768).
Military and historical museum of A. V. Suvorov.
Alexander Nevsky Cathedral (1864 — 1868).
Peter and Paul church (1465).
Uspensky church (1843).
St. Nicholas Church (1750).
Church of St. George (1889).
The being Kobrin synagogue (the 18th century).
The being Kobrin prison (1821).
Gymnasium of Maria Rodzevich (1910).
House of a prayer of evangelical Baptist Christians (1993)
Near the city one of decisive battles of revolt of Kosciusko — Krupchitsky fight took place.
Several years in the city there lived the commander Alexander Suvorov owning a manor the Kobrin key.
In war of 1812 there was a fight near Kobrin here — the first success of the Russian army in campaign.
In the city Alexander Griboyedov served.
In 1866 Mr. Napoleon Orda on suspicion of participation in revolt of 1863-1864 it was put in the Kobrin prison lock
In the Kobrin County Pyotr Krechevsky — Rada Belorusskaya's chairman of the National Republic was born.
On city border in the village Big Lepesa the Polesia poet Dmitro Falkovsky was born.
In Kobrin the mathematician Oscar Zarissky was born.
In Kobrin Alexey Martynov — the honourable citizen of Kobrin, the historian-local historian, the publicist was born
In Kobrin Semyon Sidorchuk — the architect of the emperor Nicholas II was born.
In Kobrin the Hero of the Soviet Union Vladimir Kirmanovich was born.
First hieromartyr of the earth Kobrinskoy of the lake Nikolay Piskanovsky.
1. Memory: Gict. - dakum. hronika Kobrynskaga of a rayon. - Mn.: BELTA, 2002. - 624 pages: il.
2. Materials of Wikipedia http://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/Кобрин
3. Photos from archive of the website Tourist Kobrin